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Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 01]

Tape 1, Side 1. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the first interview session, conducted on July 16, 1991, Frank discusses his family background and how it intertwines with the history of the Meier & Frank Company. He talks about the company’s founding in 1857 by his great-grandfather, Aaron Meier, and the growth of the store during the 19th century, including the store’s Friday Surprise marketing strategy and the buildings the store inhabited. He then talks about the history of Meier & Frank during the early 20th century, including his uncle Julius Meier’s term as Oregon governor from 1931 to 1935, competition with other department stores in Portland, and Meier & Frank’s newspaper advertisements. He also talks about the life of his father, Aaron Meier Frank.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 02]

Tape 1, Side 2. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the first interview session, conducted on July 16, 1991, Frank discusses his family background and how it intertwines with the history of the Meier & Frank Company. He talks about the company’s founding in 1857 by his great-grandfather, Aaron Meier, and the growth of the store during the 19th century, including the store’s Friday Surprise marketing strategy and the buildings the store inhabited. He then talks about the history of Meier & Frank during the early 20th century, including his uncle Julius Meier’s term as Oregon governor from 1931 to 1935, competition with other department stores in Portland, and Meier & Frank’s newspaper advertisements. He also talks about the life of his father, Aaron Meier Frank.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 03]

Tape 2, Side 1. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the first interview session, conducted on July 16, 1991, Frank discusses his family background and how it intertwines with the history of the Meier & Frank Company. He talks about the company’s founding in 1857 by his great-grandfather, Aaron Meier, and the growth of the store during the 19th century, including the store’s Friday Surprise marketing strategy and the buildings the store inhabited. He then talks about the history of Meier & Frank during the early 20th century, including his uncle Julius Meier’s term as Oregon governor from 1931 to 1935, competition with other department stores in Portland, and Meier & Frank’s newspaper advertisements. He also talks about the life of his father, Aaron Meier Frank.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 04]

Tape 3, Side 1. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the second interview session, conducted on November 6, 1991, Frank continues discussing the life of his father, Aaron Meier Frank, including his management of the Meier & Frank Department Store beginning in 1937. He also continues discussing Meier & Frank’s newspaper advertisements. He talks about the use of credit lines in the department store, particularly during the Depression. He discusses the Meier & Frank board of directors, and begins talking about the expansion of the store into Salem.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 05]

Tape 3, Side 2. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the second interview session, conducted on November 6, 1991, Frank continues discussing the life of his father, Aaron Meier Frank, including his management of the Meier & Frank Department Store beginning in 1937. He also continues discussing Meier & Frank’s newspaper advertisements. He talks about the use of credit lines in the department store, particularly during the Depression. He discusses the Meier & Frank board of directors, and begins talking about the expansion of the store into Salem.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 06]

Tape 4, Side 1. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the third interview session, conducted on December 21, 1991, Frank continues discussing the expansion of the Meier & Frank Department Store into Salem. He talks about managing the Salem branch from 1955 to 1965, including tailoring merchandise to the Salem community, his involvement in Salem community organizations, and his relationship with his employees. He also talks about the store’s seasonal events and his relationship with other Meier & Frank store managers.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 07]

Tape 4, Side 2. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the third interview session, conducted on December 21, 1991, Frank continues discussing the expansion of the Meier & Frank Department Store into Salem. He talks about managing the Salem branch from 1955 to 1965, including tailoring merchandise to the Salem community, his involvement in Salem community organizations, and his relationship with his employees. He also talks about the store’s seasonal events and his relationship with other Meier & Frank store managers.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 08]

Tape 5, Side 1. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the third interview session, conducted on December 21, 1991, Frank continues discussing the expansion of the Meier & Frank Department Store into Salem. He talks about managing the Salem branch from 1955 to 1965, including tailoring merchandise to the Salem community, his involvement in Salem community organizations, and his relationship with his employees. He also talks about the store’s seasonal events and his relationship with other Meier & Frank store managers.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 09]

Tape 6, Side 1. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the fourth and final interview session, conducted on April 29, 1992, Frank discusses the conditions that led to the sale of the Meier & Frank Department Store to the May Company in 1965. He describes the family divisions surrounding the sale. He then talks about resigning as manager of the Salem branch and the effect of the sale on the store’s personnel and customer base. He closes the interview by talking about his relationship with the management of the Meier & Frank Department Store at the time of the interview in 1992.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 10]

Tape 6, Side 2. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the fourth and final interview session, conducted on April 29, 1992, Frank discusses the conditions that led to the sale of the Meier & Frank Department Store to the May Company in 1965. He describes the family divisions surrounding the sale. He then talks about resigning as manager of the Salem branch and the effect of the sale on the store’s personnel and customer base. He closes the interview by talking about his relationship with the management of the Meier & Frank Department Store at the time of the interview in 1992.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Gerry Frank [Sound Recording 11]

Tape 7, Side 1. This oral history interview with Gerry Frank was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Frank’s office in Salem, Oregon, from July 16, 1991, to April 29, 1992. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the fourth and final interview session, conducted on April 29, 1992, Frank discusses the conditions that led to the sale of the Meier & Frank Department Store to the May Company in 1965. He describes the family divisions surrounding the sale. He then talks about resigning as manager of the Salem branch and the effect of the sale on the store’s personnel and customer base. He closes the interview by talking about his relationship with the management of the Meier & Frank Department Store at the time of the interview in 1992.

Frank, Gerry

Oral history interview with Bernie Foster [Sound Recording 01]

Session 1. This oral history interview with Bernie Foster was conducted by Jan Dilg at The Skanner Newsgroup offices in Portland, Oregon, from August 30 to October 12, 2017. Bernie Foster was nominated by Oregonians to be interviewed as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was recorded over three sessions; however, the first part of the first session was not recorded. In the first interview session, conducted on August 30, 2017, Foster discusses the history and daily operation of The Skanner, the Portland-based newspaper he co-founded. He talks about hiring journalists, attempting to expand into radio, and running an online news site. He talks about his involvement with the National Black Publishers Association and some of the stories he published, including on the topic of policing in Portland.

Foster, Bernie (Bernard), 1940-

Oral history interview with Bernie Foster [Sound Recording 02]

Session 2. This oral history interview with Bernie Foster was conducted by Jan Dilg at The Skanner Newsgroup offices in Portland, Oregon, from August 30 to October 12, 2017. Bernie Foster was nominated by Oregonians to be interviewed as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was recorded over three sessions; however, the first part of the first session was not recorded. In the second interview session, conducted on September 17, 2017, Foster discusses the Skanner Foundation, which grants awards and scholarships to members of Oregon’s black community. He talks about starting the foundation in the early 1990s; the foundation’s annual fundraiser, the Martin Luther King Jr. Annual Breakfast; and some of the community members who have received awards and scholarships. He also briefly talks about his experience surviving cancer. He discusses the Portland Police Bureau, and shares his thoughts about police brutality against black people. He talks about his involvement in the renaming of Union Avenue to Martin King Luther, Jr. Boulevard. He then talks about his motivation for starting The Skanner newspaper, some of the stories the paper has published, and building a brand. He discusses preservation issues associated with running a website and how he handled those issues with The Skanner’s site.

Foster, Bernie (Bernard), 1940-

Oral history interview with Bernie Foster [Sound Recording 03]

Session 3. This oral history interview with Bernie Foster was conducted by Jan Dilg at The Skanner Newsgroup offices in Portland, Oregon, from August 30 to October 12, 2017. Bernie Foster was nominated by Oregonians to be interviewed as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was recorded over three sessions; however, the first part of the first session was not recorded. In the third and final interview session, conducted on October 12, 2017, Foster revisits topics that were discussed in the unrecorded part of the first interview session. He talks about founding The Skanner with his wife, Bobbie Doré Foster, in 1975, including getting advertisers, practicing journalism in the 1970s, and distributing the paper and finding an audience. He talks about some of the stories he published, about handling dishonest sources, and about covering local politics. He discusses some of his interactions with the community, the changes in the Portland black community since the 1970s, and some examples of his activism. He talks about his relationship with the Oregon Historical Society, including receiving the History Makers award in 2013 and donating The Skanner’s photograph archive. He shares his hopes for the future of the newspaper, talks about the importance of journalism in a democracy, and revisits the topic of his motivation in starting The Skanner. He closes the interview by discussing his involvement in the Hood to Coast Relay.

Foster, Bernie (Bernard), 1940-

Oral history interview with Bobbie Doré Foster [Sound Recording 01]

Session 1. This oral history interview with Bobbie Doré Foster was conducted by Jan Dilg in the office of The Skanner Newsgroup from August 29 to September 26, 2017. Bobbie Dore Foster was nominated by Oregonians to be interviewed as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was conducted in three sessions. In the first interview session, conducted on August 29, 2017, Foster discusses her early life in Abbeville, Louisiana. She talks about the importance of education, and briefly describes her education in Louisiana. She then talks about moving to Astoria, Oregon, in 1965, and attending Clatsop Community College. She discusses spending some years in Seattle, Washington, and settling in Portland, Oregon, and studying journalism at Portland State University. She speaks about her involvement in the founding of The Skanner Newsgroup with her husband, Bernie Foster, in 1975; describes the process of printing a newspaper; and talks about the mission of the paper. She talks about the paper’s readership, gentrification in the neighborhood of the Skanner building, and expanding the paper to Seattle. She talks about issues affecting the black community; talks about her experience as a woman in the media, and about as other women journalists; and discusses other black newspapers around the United States.

Foster, Bobbie Doré, 1938-

Oral history interview with Bobbie Doré Foster [Sound Recording 02]

Session 2. This oral history interview with Bobbie Doré Foster was conducted by Jan Dilg in the office of The Skanner Newsgroup from August 29 to September 26, 2017. Bobbie Dore Foster was nominated by Oregonians to be interviewed as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was conducted in three sessions. In the second interview session, conducted on September 12, 2017, Foster discusses the Skanner Foundation, including the scholarship and awards program, and fundraising events. She talks about her and Bernie Foster’s involvement in the renaming of Union Avenue to Martin Luther King, Jr. Boulevard. She also talks about a fire at a building owned by The Skanner that occurred during that time. She then discusses her involvement with several community organizations, including the Rotary Club, De La Salle North Catholic High School, and the NAACP. She also talks about her involvement with the Saint Andrew Catholic Church.

Foster, Bobbie Doré, 1938-

Oral history interview with Bobbie Doré Foster [Sound Recording 03]

Session 3. This oral history interview with Bobbie Doré Foster was conducted by Jan Dilg in the office of The Skanner Newsgroup from August 29 to September 26, 2017. Bobbie Dore Foster was nominated by Oregonians to be interviewed as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was conducted in three sessions. In the third and final interview session, conducted on September 26, 2017, Foster discusses awards she received, and also revisits the topic of studying journalism at Portland State University. She then talks about the many awards The Skanner received. She also discusses the donation of The Skanner photograph archive to the Oregon Historical Society. She talks about the challenges of running a newspaper, where The Skanner has been most successful, and how the paper has changed over the decades. She closes the interview by discussing the importance of role models for black children.

Foster, Bobbie Doré, 1938-

Oral history interviews with Bertha Holt, by Jim Strassmaier (Sound Recording 01)

Tape 1, Side 1. Bertha "Grandma" Holt talks about the people, places and events in her life: husband, children, living in the Midwest, Great Depression, farm life, move to Oregon, logging, sawmills, her interest in orphan children from Korea and the creation of Holt International Children's Services etc.

Holt, Bertha

Oral history interviews with Bertha Holt, by Jim Strassmaier (Sound Recording 02)

Tape 1, Side 2. Bertha "Grandma" Holt talks about the people, places and events in her life: husband, children, living in the Midwest, Great Depression, farm life, move to Oregon, logging, sawmills, her interest in orphan children from Korea and the creation of Holt International Children's Services etc.

Holt, Bertha

Oral history interviews with Bertha Holt, by Jim Strassmaier (Sound Recording 03)

Tape 2, Side 1. Bertha "Grandma" Holt talks about the people, places and events in her life: husband, children, living in the Midwest, Great Depression, farm life, move to Oregon, logging, sawmills, her interest in orphan children from Korea and the creation of Holt International Children's Services etc.

Holt, Bertha

Oral history interviews with Bertha Holt, by Jim Strassmaier (Sound Recording 04)

Tape 2, Side 2. Bertha "Grandma" Holt talks about the people, places and events in her life: husband, children, living in the Midwest, Great Depression, farm life, move to Oregon, logging, sawmills, her interest in orphan children from Korea and the creation of Holt International Children's Services etc.

Holt, Bertha

Oral history interviews with Bertha Holt, by Jim Strassmaier (Sound Recording 05)

Tape 3, Side 1. Bertha "Grandma" Holt talks about the people, places and events in her life: husband, children, living in the Midwest, Great Depression, farm life, move to Oregon, logging, sawmills, her interest in orphan children from Korea and the creation of Holt International Children's Services etc.

Holt, Bertha

Oral history interviews with Bertha Holt, by Jim Strassmaier (Sound Recording 06)

Tape 3, Side 2. Bertha "Grandma" Holt talks about the people, places and events in her life: husband, children, living in the Midwest, Great Depression, farm life, move to Oregon, logging, sawmills, her interest in orphan children from Korea and the creation of Holt International Children's Services etc.

Holt, Bertha

Oral history interviews with Bertha Holt, by Jim Strassmaier (Sound Recording 07)

Tape 4, Side 1. Bertha "Grandma" Holt talks about the people, places and events in her life: husband, children, living in the Midwest, Great Depression, farm life, move to Oregon, logging, sawmills, her interest in orphan children from Korea and the creation of Holt International Children's Services etc.

Holt, Bertha

Oral history interviews with Bertha Holt, by Jim Strassmaier (Sound Recording 08)

Tape 4, Side 2. Bertha "Grandma" Holt talks about the people, places and events in her life: husband, children, living in the Midwest, Great Depression, farm life, move to Oregon, logging, sawmills, her interest in orphan children from Korea and the creation of Holt International Children's Services etc.

Holt, Bertha

Oral history interviews with Bertha Holt, by Jim Strassmaier (Sound Recording 09)

Tape 5, Side 1. Bertha "Grandma" Holt talks about the people, places and events in her life: husband, children, living in the Midwest, Great Depression, farm life, move to Oregon, logging, sawmills, her interest in orphan children from Korea and the creation of Holt International Children's Services etc.

Holt, Bertha

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