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Oral history interview with Ida Mae Shepherd

This oral history interview with Ida Mae Shepherd was conducted by Greta Smith Wisnewski from August 14 to October 26, 2020. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the interview was conducted using Zoom, a video conferencing software. Shepherd was nominated by Oregonians to be interviewed as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was conducted in five sessions.

In the first interview session, conducted on August 14, 2020, Shepherd speaks at length about her family background, particularly focusing on the life of her maternal grandmother, Edith Goodell Lee. She discusses her early life in the Eliot neighborhood of Portland, Oregon, and talks about businesses in the area. She then briefly talks about living in Vanport during World War II. She discusses her research into her family history.

In the second interview session, conducted on September 11, 2020, Shepherd speaks further about her family background, focusing on her paternal family. She revisits the topic of her early life in the Eliot neighborhood, and talks about her Catholic upbringing and involvement with the Immaculate Heart Catholic Church. She discusses how the Black community changed after World War II, as well as changes in the way white people treated them. She then continues to discuss living in Vanport as a teenager during World War II, including her social life, recreational activities, and segregation. She also talks about her early education and about jobs she worked after dropping out. She shares her experiences during the 1948 flood, including living in Guild's Lake for a short time afterward.

In the third interview session, conducted on September 25, 2020, Shepherd discusses her marriage to Theodore Cassidy Powell. She then talks about living in the Albina neighborhood in the early 1950s. She also revisits the topic of how the Black community changed after World War II, as well as how the way white people treated them changed. She talks about working as a janitor at KGW, and about her brief marriage to Curley Massey. She speaks about her marriage to Emmett Edwin Shepherd, about buying a house in the Eliot neighborhood, and about the changes in the neighborhood since the 1960s. She talks about raising a family, about her career in housekeeping and janitorial services, and about her experiences during the civil rights movement, including meeting Coretta Scott King. She shares her thoughts about police treatment of Black residents, talks about the mass displacement of Black residents during the construction of I-5 in the 1960s, and discusses the Black community in the Albina area of Portland.

In the fourth interview session, conducted on October 9, 2020, Shepherd discusses her experiences picking hops in the 1930s. She shares a childhood drawing she created of a tavern on Union Avenue, as well as a photograph. She talks about the people who lived in the Eliot neighborhood, and discusses her children, their families, and their careers. She revisits the topic of her experiences during the civil rights movement, and the topic of the mass displacement of Black people during the construction of I-5 in the 1960s, as well as during the expansion of Emanuel Hospital in the 1970s. She speaks at length about her involvement with Albina Fair Share and about working to reduce the amount of abandoned houses in the neighborhood. She talks about her involvement with Immaculate Heart Catholic Church.

In the fifth and final interview session, conducted on October 26, 2020, Shepherd speaks at length about how the Albina area of Portland, particularly the Eliot neighborhood, changed over her life. She also shares her reasons for living nearly her entire life in the area. She discusses how the ways that white and Black Portlanders interact have changed over her life. She talks about the death of her husband, Emmett E. Shepherd, about her volunteer work since her retirement in the late 1980s, and how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected her activities. She discusses the political situation at the time of the interview in 2020, including protests in Portland and the presidential election. She closes the interview by talking about her recent stroke and recovery.

Shepherd, Ida Mae, 1929-2022

Oral history interview with Ida Mae Shepherd [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Ida Mae Shepherd was conducted by Greta Smith Wisnewski from August 14 to October 26, 2020. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the interview was conducted using Zoom, a video conferencing software. Shepherd was nominated by Oregonians to be interviewed as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was conducted in five sessions.

In the first interview session, conducted on August 14, 2020, Shepherd speaks at length about her family background, particularly focusing on the life of her maternal grandmother, Edith Goodell Lee. She discusses her early life in the Eliot neighborhood of Portland, Oregon, and talks about businesses in the area. She then briefly talks about living in Vanport during World War II. She discusses her research into her family history.

In the second interview session, conducted on September 11, 2020, Shepherd speaks further about her family background, focusing on her paternal family. She revisits the topic of her early life in the Eliot neighborhood, and talks about her Catholic upbringing and involvement with the Immaculate Heart Catholic Church. She discusses how the Black community changed after World War II, as well as changes in the way white people treated them. She then continues to discuss living in Vanport as a teenager during World War II, including her social life, recreational activities, and segregation. She also talks about her early education and about jobs she worked after dropping out. She shares her experiences during the 1948 flood, including living in Guild's Lake for a short time afterward.

In the third interview session, conducted on September 25, 2020, Shepherd discusses her marriage to Theodore Cassidy Powell. She then talks about living in the Albina neighborhood in the early 1950s. She also revisits the topic of how the Black community changed after World War II, as well as how the way white people treated them changed. She talks about working as a janitor at KGW, and about her brief marriage to Curley Massey. She speaks about her marriage to Emmett Edwin Shepherd, about buying a house in the Eliot neighborhood, and about the changes in the neighborhood since the 1960s. She talks about raising a family, about her career in housekeeping and janitorial services, and about her experiences during the civil rights movement, including meeting Coretta Scott King. She shares her thoughts about police treatment of Black residents, talks about the mass displacement of Black residents during the construction of I-5 in the 1960s, and discusses the Black community in the Albina area of Portland.

In the fourth interview session, conducted on October 9, 2020, Shepherd discusses her experiences picking hops in the 1930s. She shares a childhood drawing she created of a tavern on Union Avenue, as well as a photograph. She talks about the people who lived in the Eliot neighborhood, and discusses her children, their families, and their careers. She revisits the topic of her experiences during the civil rights movement, and the topic of the mass displacement of Black people during the construction of I-5 in the 1960s, as well as during the expansion of Emanuel Hospital in the 1970s. She speaks at length about her involvement with Albina Fair Share and about working to reduce the amount of abandoned houses in the neighborhood. She talks about her involvement with Immaculate Heart Catholic Church.

In the fifth and final interview session, conducted on October 26, 2020, Shepherd speaks at length about how the Albina area of Portland, particularly the Eliot neighborhood, changed over her life. She also shares her reasons for living nearly her entire life in the area. She discusses how the ways that white and Black Portlanders interact have changed over her life. She talks about the death of her husband, Emmett E. Shepherd, about her volunteer work since her retirement in the late 1980s, and how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected her activities. She discusses the political situation at the time of the interview in 2020, including protests in Portland and the presidential election. She closes the interview by talking about her recent stroke and recovery.

Shepherd, Ida Mae, 1929-2022

Oral history interview with LeRoy Haynes, Jr.

This oral history interview with the Rev. Dr. LeRoy Haynes, Jr., was conducted by Jan Dilg at Haynes' office in Portland, Oregon, from October 8 to December 5, 2018. Haynes was nominated by Oregonians to be interviewed as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was conducted in three sessions.

In the first interview session, conducted on October 8, 2018, Haynes discusses his family background and early life in Beaumont, Texas, including his experiences with racism and segregation as a black person. He talks about the black community in Beaumont, his early education, and his early involvement with the Methodist Episcopal Church. He discusses his involvement in the civil rights movement, including his training for and participation in non-violent protests. He then talks about his involvement in the Black Power Movement and the Black Consciousness Movement. He discusses his role in the development of the Black Panther Party; talks about the history of the struggle for freedom for black people; and discusses his experience in college while organizing for civil rights. He talks about his journey in becoming a Methodist Episcopal pastor and briefly discusses his experience at the Perkins School of Theology at Southern Methodist University in Dallas.

In the second interview session, conducted on October 29, 2018, Haynes continues discussing his journey in becoming a Methodist Episcopal pastor and his experience at the Perkins School of Theology. He also talks about the history of the African Methodist Episcopal Church. He discusses his career as a pastor in Texas; talks about navigating the conservative attitudes in Dallas to accomplish his goals; and describes his accomplishments. He goes on to speak about his involvement with the Albina Ministerial Alliance in Portland, Oregon. He discusses his work, in both Oregon and Texas, for programs regarding AIDS and HIV, as well as addiction. He then briefly talks about serving as president of the North Portland Bible College. He discusses his love of education and talks about earning his doctorate of ministry from Brite Theological Seminary and doing post-doctoral work at the Boston University. He describes being recruited to serve as pastor of Allen Temple Christian Methodist Episcopal Church in Portland, and as presiding elder of the Alaska & Oregon/Washington Districts and in the Alaska-Pacific Region of the 9th Episcopal District. He shares his first impression of Portland and describes his congregation and the church building. He revisits the topic of his involvement in the Albina Ministerial Alliance and talks about his work toward police reform.

In the third interview session, conducted on December 5, 2018, Haynes discusses serving as president of the North Portland Bible College. He talks about his involvement with the Ecumenical Ministries of Oregon and his continued activism. He reflects on the challenges he faced as a civil rights activist, and how he applied the lessons he learned during that time to his community activism in Portland. He also talks about the different forms that racism takes, particularly describing the difference between his experiences in Texas and Oregon. He discusses his book, "God's Prophet in Non-Violence: The Theology and Philosophy of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.," and talks about what he hopes readers take from it. He closes the interview by talking about his work with the Allen Temple Christian Methodist Episcopal Church at the time of the interview, awards he's received, and his hopes for the future.

Haynes, LeRoy, Jr., 1949-

Oral History Interview with Bette Lee, by Sandy Polishuk [Transcript]

Transcript. Bette Lee discusses her activism and career in photographing protests, beginning in the San Francisco Bay Area in the 1980s, and later in Portland, Oregon. She discusses several specific photographs, many of which can be found in the transcript. Protests and movements discussed include the Portland Alliance, Indie Media, World trade Organization, Iraq War, Occupy Wall Street, Livermore Action Group, etc.

Lee, Bette

United States Postal Service rally in Portland, Oregon

Activists marching under the Chinatown Gateway in Portland, Oregon, during a rally against proposed cuts to the United States Postal Service in 2013. Two people at the front hold a banner which reads, "Save America's Postal Service." A man wearing a blue jacket and holding a megaphone marches beside them. Another man obscured at the edge of the photograph waves a large American flag in front of the crowd. Several other people in the crowd also hold banners and picket signs.

Young, David

May Day rally march through downtown Portland, Oregon

Activists marching down a street in support of labor rights and immigration reform during a May Day rally in downtown Portland, Oregon on May 1, 2011. Several people hold banners, picket signs, and American flags. A silver police car with its lights flashing and a police officer on a bicycle move down a street in front of the crowd.

Portland Jobs with Justice

Participants in a Health Care for All march in Portland, Oregon

A group of participants in a Health Care for All march held in Portland, Oregon in 2009. At the center of the group is a large puppet dressed as a nurse. There is a round badge reading "Single Payer" pinned to the puppet's chest. Several people in the crowd hold banners and picket signs supporting Jobs with Justice, healthcare reform, and local unions.

Portland Jobs with Justice

Anti-WTO rally marchers in Portland, Oregon

A group of people march down a street in Portland, Oregon during an anti-WTO rally in 2009. A banner at the front of the group reads, "No to the WTO, Yes to the Right to Organize." Several other people in the crowd also hold banners and picket signs supporting Jobs with Justice, labor rights, and fair trade.

Portland Jobs with Justice

Laurie King speaking at an Economic Town Hall

Laurie King speaking to an audience at the First Unitarian Church in Portland, Oregon, during an Economic Town Hall sponsored by Portland Jobs with Justice. The photograph is taken from behind King's back looking out at the audience as she stands at a podium.

Portland Jobs with Justice

Speakers at a CBLOC rally

A man speaks into a microphone at a podium set up outdoors during a rally for the Cross Border Labor Organizing Coalition (CBLOC) in 2005. Behind him, two men stand on a bench holding up a sign which reads, "CAFTA: Worse than NAFTA."

Portland Jobs with Justice

Oral history interview with Edward Leavy

This oral history interview with Edward Leavy was conducted by Clark Hansen in Leavy's chambers at the U.S. District Courthouse (known as the Mark O. Hatfield U.S. Courthouse) in Portland, Oregon, from March 2 to April 13, 2004. The portion of the interview conducted on March 30, 2004 (Tapes 10 through 12) appears to have been simultaneously recorded on audiocassette and video. In the audio recording, the parties make reference to the video recording, which is not included in this collection.

In this interview, Leavy discusses his family background and early life on a hops farm in Butteville, Oregon, including his memories of the Depression and his education. He talks about attending the University of Portland and studying at Notre Dame Law School, including his reasons for attending Catholic schools. He also speaks about how his faith informs his morality and judicial decisions, particularly regarding the Fifth Amendment. He discusses serving as a deputy district attorney for Lane County and some of the cases he prosecuted. He reflects at length upon the byzantine workings of the justice system, its strengths and weaknesses, and a judge's role within it.

Leavy discusses his election to the positions of Lane County District Court judge and Circuit Court judge, as well as the elections of other judges in Oregon. He talks about some of the cases he heard and some decisions of his that were reversed. He speaks at length about many of the judges he knew, including Ted Goodwin and Otto Skopil. He discusses the differences between state and federal courts. Leavy describes the magistrate system during the years he was a U.S. Magistrate for the U.S. District Court of Oregon. He then speaks at length about mediating cases and reaching settlements. He discusses some controversial issues he's had to rule on, including drug use, the death penalty, and abortion. He also speaks briefly about his family life.

Leavy discusses serving as a judge on the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, beginning with his appointment by President Ronald Reagan in 1987. He discusses some of the cases he heard, including on Rajneeshpuram. He describes the various duties of federal judges; the processes and procedures of the Court of Appeals; and how it differs from the U.S. District Court of Oregon. He talks about his experience as a senior judge on the Court of Appeals since 1997, including mediating for U.S. v. Wen Ho Lee. He then talks about serving on the Surveillance Court of Review from 2001 to 2008, including the history and duties of that court. He also talks about writing opinions, his staff and law clerks, and the workload on the Court of Appeals. He closes the interview by discussing his thoughts on the trend of civil penalties in lieu of criminal, and concerns about the right to privacy.

Leavy, Edward, 1929-

Oral history interview with John D. Weisinger

This oral history interview with John D. Weisinger was conducted by Jamie Minkus and Kirsten Wall on May 24, 2002. The interview was conducted as part of the Oregon Wine Archives Oral History Project, which collected interviews with notable figures in the wine-growing industry, including vintners, vineyard growers, community members, and workers active in the development of Oregon's wine industry. The sound quality of this interview is extremely poor, and much of it is inaudible.

In this interview, Weisinger discusses the history of the area around the Weisinger Winery in Ashland, Oregon, and shares the reasons that he chose the site to purchase in 1978. He also talks about his family history of winemaking, then speaks about the early years of his winery, including the process of planting his first grapes. He discusses the wine industry in Oregon, and talks about the Oregon Winegrowers Association and the market for Oregon wines. He closes the interview by talking about the future of the Oregon wine industry, and shares his thoughts about how climate change will affect winegrowers.

Weisinger, John D. (John Dampier), 1941-

Oral history interview with Dick Troon

This oral history interview with Dick Troon was conducted by Jamie Minkus and Kirsten Wall at Troon Vineyards in the Applegate Valley, Oregon, on April 20, 2002. The interview was conducted as part of the Oregon Wine Archives Oral History Project, which collected interviews with notable figures in the wine-growing industry, including vintners, vineyard growers, community members, and workers active in the development of Oregon's wine industry.

In this interview, Troon describes the beginnings of Troon Vineyard. He talks about planting the first grapevines in 1972, about taking a class on viticulture at Oregon State University, and about beginning to make wine in 1993. He discusses the growth of the wine industry in Oregon, talks about the climate and terroir of the Applegate Valley, and speaks about other winemakers in the region. He also talks about the State of Jefferson movement in relation to the Applegate Valley wine industry, discusses how the region differs from the Willamette Valley, and shares his experiences making Cabernet and Zinfandel wines. He talks about his children, their families, and their careers. He closes the interview by discussing his involvement with the Oregon Winegrowers Association, and Oregon wine label regulations.

Troon, Dick (Richard Donald), 1928-2011

Oral history interview with Bill Fuller

This oral history interview with Bill Fuller was conducted by Jamie Minkus and Kirsten Wall in Portland, Oregon, on January 24, 2002. The interview was conducted as part of the Oregon Wine Archives Oral History Project, which collected interviews with notable figures in the wine-growing industry, including vintners, vineyard growers, community members, and workers active in the development of Oregon's wine industry. A transcript is also available.

In this interview, Fuller discusses his early experience with winemaking at the Italian Swiss Colony in Santa Rosa, California. He shares the reasons why he and fellow winemaker Bill Malkmus chose the area of Forest Grove, Oregon, to establish their winery, Tualatin Vineyards; talks about the types of grapes they grew; and discusses the first wines they made in the 1970s. He speaks about his involvement with the Oregon Winegrowers Association and talks about wine labeling legislation the organization lobbied for. He talks about the growth of the Oregon wine industry and market since the 1970s, and how it changed during the 1980s. He also talks about winning best of show at the International Wine and Spirits Competition with a Pinot Noir and a Chardonnay in the same year. He discusses his partnership with Bill Malkmus; talks about his children and their careers; and closes the interview by sharing his winemaking philosophy.

Fuller, Bill (William Lee), 1937-

Oral history interview with Lewis L. McArthur

  • SR 2526
  • Collection
  • 2001-01-19 - 2001-02-15

This oral history interview with Lewis L. McArthur was conducted by Sieglinde Smith at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland, Oregon, from January 19 to February 15, 2001, as part of the oral history program at the society's research library. The interview was conducted in five sessions.

In the first interview session, conducted on January 19, 2001, McArthur discusses his family background and early life in the Green Hills neighborhood of Portland, Oregon, including his education, the house he grew up in, and his recreational activities. He describes the neighborhood and talks about people who lived there. He also speaks about his parents' personalities, travels, and social lives.

In the second interview session, conducted on January 23, 2001, McArthur continues to discuss his early life in the Green Hills neighborhood and talks about his relationship with his parents. He speaks about the work of his father, Lewis A. McArthur, on Oregon Geographic Names and about traveling with him by train in the 1920s for research. He discusses his college experience at the University of California, Berkeley, and talks about working for U.S. Steel Company in the late 1930s. He then talks about his experiences in the U.S. Army while stationed in Alaska during World War II.

In the third interview session, conducted on February 1, 2001, McArthur speaks further about working for the U.S. Steel Company and about his experiences in the U.S. Army during World War II, including studying Mandarin Chinese. He talks about his marriage to Joyce A. Clark. He then speaks at length about his career as an industrial designer for the Ray F. Becker Company, and talks about products the company produced, about the steel fabrication process, and about buildings the company worked on, particularly gas stations. He talks about how Oregon has changed during the 20th century, particularly regarding housing development, transportation, and power generation.

In the fourth interview session, conducted on February 8, 2001, McArthur shares his memories of the Columbia River before the construction of hydroelectric dams, and talks about how the Columbia River Gorge changed. He briefly discusses serving on the state advisory committee on historic preservation in the 1970s, and then talks about his recreational activities on Mount Hood, including climbing and camping on the mountain, and repairing the Snowshoe Cabin, the Cloud Cap Inn, and other buildings.

In the fifth interview session, conducted on February 15, 2001, McArthur discusses his role models, including his family members, and talks about construction projects that impressed him, including dams on the Columbia River and the Bay Bridge in California. He also speaks about mapmaking. He shares his childhood memories of attending meetings of the Pioneer Association, riding the streetcar, and traveling with his family. He compares travel by various modes of transportation, particularly air and rail. He revisits the topic of his father's work on Oregon Geographic Names, then speaks at length about his own work on later editions of the book and about his service on the state advisory committee on historic preservation. He describes his favorite places in Oregon, and talks about raising a family.

McArthur, Lewis L.

Margaret Butler holding a Jobs with Justice pledge card

Margaret Butler, Portland Jobs with Justice executive director, during a District Council of Trade Unions rally at Portland City Hall. She is standing at a microphone in front of a crowd of people holding a Jobs with Justice pledge card above her head. A large group of people stand behind her holding pro-union banners and picket signs.

Portland Jobs with Justice

Oral history interview with Monroe Sweetland

  • SR 11131
  • Collection
  • 2000-03-11

This oral history interview with Monroe Sweetland was conducted by an unidentified woman on March 11, 2000. In this interview, Sweetland discusses moving to Milwaukie, Oregon, around 1949. He discusses his purchase of the Milwaukie Review newspaper, the houses he and his young family lived in, and life in the Island Station neighborhood. He talks about his children, their early education, their families, and their careers. He talks about his neighbors, including Milwaukie Mayor Joy Burges, as well as the changes in the neighborhood. He also speaks at length about growing lilacs and camellias. He talks about the livability of the Island Station neighborhood. Sweetland and the interviewer discuss the upcoming Milwaukie High School reunion. He goes on to talk about his wife, Lil Megrath, her involvement in progressive politics, and her government career. He also briefly discusses his family background. Sweetland then returns to discussing his children. He speaks at length about urban wildlife, particularly nutria, Canadian geese, and foxes, as well as Kellogg Creek in Milwaukie, particularly regarding its fish and clam populations.

Sweetland, Monroe, 1910-2006

Portland Jobs with Justice rally outside Powell's Books

A crowd of people attending a rally in support of Powell's employees during their campaign for a union contract with the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU). People are gathered on the sidewalk in front of the entrance to Powell's Books in Portland, Oregon. A large paper mache puppet of Michael Powell is visible on the right side of the photograph. During the rally, Portland Jobs with Justice and Portland Art and Revolution members acted out a performative wedding between Powell's owner, Michael Powell and ILWU's Larry Longshore.

Portland Jobs with Justice

Puppets at a Portland Jobs with Justice rally at Powell's Books

Three people help move a large puppet down a street in Portland, Oregon. The puppet wears a formal suit and has a gold name tag reading, "Michael Powell, Owner." A second puppet visible behind the first puppet is of a man with a full beard and blue hat wearing a wedding dress. It has a nametag decorated in flowers which reads, "Larry Longshore, Union Worker." The puppets are part of a rally coordinated by Portland Jobs with Justice to support Powell's employees during their campaign for a union contract with the International Longshore and Warehouse Union (ILWU). During the rally, Portland Jobs with Justice and Portland Art and Revolution members acted out a performative wedding between Powell's owner, Michael Powell and ILWU's Larry Longshore.

Portland Jobs with Justice

Gay and Lesbian Archives of the Pacific Northwest Oral Histories

  • Mss 2988-SR
  • Collection
  • 2000 - 2013

The Gay and Lesbian Archives of the Pacific Northwest (GLAPN) was established in Portland, Oregon, by Tom Cook in the early 1990s. Since then the organization has collected archival materials and oral histories from organizations and individuals active in lesbian and gay issues in the Portland area and throughout the Pacific Northwest. Many of these oral histories were gathered by Portland State University students, from the late 90s to present.

Workers' Rights Board panel

Participants in the first Workers' Rights Board organized by Portland Jobs with Justice. JwJ organized the hearing to support Powell's employees during bargaining for the first union contract in 2000. Participants are seated in a row behind two long tables. A banner reading, "Workers' Rights Board," hangs on the wall behind them. Name cards on the table identify the panel participants as José Padín, Mary King, Diane Rosenbaum, and Aryeh Hirschfield.

Portland Jobs with Justice

Oral history interview with Barbara A. Mackenzie

  • SR 1936
  • Collection
  • 1999-09-27 - 2001-06-01

This oral history interview with Barbara A. Mackenzie was conducted by Katy Barber at Mackenzie's home in Portland, Oregon, from September 27, 1999, to June 1, 2001. Barbara Mackenzie's son, Thomas R. Mackenzie, and Jan Dilg were also present during the sessions recorded in 2001. The interview was conducted in four sessions. The first part of session one was not recorded.

In the first interview session, conducted on September 27, 1999, Mackenzie discusses working as a teacher in Oregon and California, including working with marginalized groups in the San Francisco Bay Area and opposition she faced. She also talks about her work with the Red Cross in Virginia. She speaks about her role in relocating members of the Warm Springs, Yakama, Umatilla, and Nez Perce tribes during the building of The Dalles Dam at Celilo Falls. She talks about her relationship with Chief Tommy Thompson and Flora Cushinway Thompson of the Wyam people and shares stories about the Wyam way of life. She also talks about her work with Navajo people near Palm Springs, California.

In the second interview session, conducted on September 30, 1999, Mackenzie continues discussing her role in the relocation of members of the Warm Springs, Yakama, Umatilla, and Nez Perce tribes. She talks about her relationship with Flora Cushinway Thompson of the Wyam people, some of her advocacy on behalf of indigenous people, and where she felt the local authorities were neglecting indigenous people's needs. She also talks about Temmingway Moses, a Yakama woman who tended a cemetery near the Maryhill Museum in Washington; the attitudes of the population at The Dalles towards Native Americans; and her working relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. She talks about Abe Sholoway, a Umatilla man who acted as interpreter; her efforts to get Native American marriages legally recognized; and attending the Pendleton Round-Up. She also talks about the processes of the relocation project and how she got involved. She shares her opinion about assimilation and the U.S. government's practice of tribal termination. She talks about her brother, Ralph Tudor, who served as undersecretary of the Interior under President Dwight D. Eisenhower and worked as an engineer on the Bay Bridge and Bay Area Rapid Transit in the San Francisco Bay Area. She also discusses some of her secretaries and revisits the topics of working as a teacher with marginalized groups in California and her work with the Red Cross in Virginia. She then talks about serving as executive for the Red Cross in Lincoln County, Oregon.

In the third interview session, conducted on January 16, 2001, Mackenzie discusses her family background and her early life and education in Sutherlin, Oregon. She also talks about the career of her brother, Ralph Tudor. She discusses her education at St. Mary's Academy and at Lincoln High School in Portland, her relationship with her mother, and her first teaching job near Bend. She talks about her college experiences at Western College for Women (now known as the Western Campus of Miami University) and at the Oregon Normal School (now known as Western Oregon University).

In the fourth interview session, conducted on June 1, 2001, Mackenzie discusses serving as executive for the Red Cross in Lincoln County, including organizing blood drives and working with veterans. She closes the interview by describing the town of Newport.

Mackenzie, Barbara A. (Barbara Amanda), 1905-2002

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