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Hatfield, Mark O., 1922-2011
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Oral history interview with Monroe Sweetland

This oral history interview with Monroe Mark Sweetland was conducted by Richard Harmon from November 16, 1984, to October 26, 1987, at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland, Oregon. In this interview, Sweetland discusses his family background and early life, including his childhood in rural Michigan; his early involvement in Democratic politics; and his experiences at Wittenberg University and Cornell University. He discusses his political activism during college, including his involvement with the Student League for Industrial Democracy and his political activism on behalf of Socialist candidates. Sweetland also discusses his political activities after his return to Oregon in 1935, including his work with the Oregon Commonwealth Federation and his decision to leave the Socialist Party and join the Democratic Party. Also discussed is his work with labor unions; the New Deal programs; and his work with the Oregon Democratic Party. He briefly talks about World War II and its effect on Oregon politics, particularly the effect the Hitler-Stalin pact had on American communists and the Oregon Commonwealth Federation; internment of Japanese-Americans; and his own pacifism. Sweetland goes on to talk about his involvement with the Democratic Party of Oregon after the war as national committeeman; the factions within the party; and mobilizing women and black voters. He also discusses his ownership of several Oregon newspapers (the Molalla Pioneer, the Newport News, and the Milwaukie Review) and about running them with the help of his wife, Lillie Sweetland. In addition, he describes his experiences as a legislator in the Oregon House of Representatives and Senate during the 1950s and early 1960s. Topics include: education; attempts to pass a sales tax; campaign finance; and Wayne Morse's switch to the Democratic Party. He also discusses working closely with Howard Morgan, the national chairman of the Democratic Party; U.S. Senator Dick Neuberger; and U.S. Representative Edith Green. Sweetland talks about his relationship with Mark Hatfield and running for secretary of state against him in 1956; the 1962 presidential election and his support of John F. Kennedy; and his campaign for secretary of state in 1964. Finally, he discusses his activities after leaving the Legislature, including his interest in Indonesia and continued advocacy for education as a lobbyist for the National Education Association.

Sweetland, Monroe, 1910-2006

Oral history interview with Vern Cook

This oral history interview with Robert Vernon "Vern" Cook was conducted by Clark Hansen at Cook's law office in Gresham, Oregon, and Cook's home in Troutdale, Oregon, from December 15, 1994, to October 15, 1995. In the interview, Cook discusses his family background and early life during the Depression in Las Animas, Colorado, and in Gresham. He also describes being a young man during World War II; being denied enlistment in the Navy due to polio; and his rehabilitation from polio. Cook discusses studying political science at Reed College and law at the University of Oregon, all while working concessions at various businesses in California with his brother. He talks about practicing law in Gresham; his involvement with the Democratic Party; and his first campaign for the Oregon House of Representatives in 1956. Cook discusses the legislation he worked on while serving in the House, including taxation, education, and worker's compensation. He also talks about serving on the judicial committee and related issues. He discusses some of the legislators he worked with, including Pat Dooley and Monroe Sweetland, as well as Governor Mark Hatfield.

Cook then describes his experience in the Oregon Senate, including serving on the judiciary committee and legislation on taxation, particularly sales taxes, as well as health insurance, education, land use, agriculture, domestic violence, and labor. He also talks about working with senators Tom Mahoney, Edith Green, Walter Pearson, Debbs Potts, Monte Montgomery, Alice Corbett, Ted Hallock, Jason Boe, and Vic Atiyeh. Cook also discusses party politics and its influence on the effectiveness of the Legislature during his tenure; the 1968 Democratic National Convention; and working with Governor Tom McCall and Portland Mayor Neil Goldschmidt. He also talks about his unsuccessful campaigns for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Senate; his involvement in Frank Church's campaign in the Democratic presidential primary in 1976; and the financial difficulties he faced as a legislator. He closes the interview by discussing his career as a lawyer since leaving the Legislature in 1980.

Cook, Vern (Robert Vernon), 1925-2008

Oral history interview with Warne H. Nunn

This oral history interview with Warne H. Nunn was conducted by Jim Strassmaier at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland, Oregon, from October 20 to November 3, 1987. In this interview, Nunn discusses his family background and early life on a farm outside Salem, Oregon, including his memories of the Depression and his education. He talks about attending Willamette University, including his professors. He talks about his career in civil service for the state of Oregon, beginning with a job at the Civil Service Commission in 1945, on the Public Utilities Commission in 1952, and as director of the Department of Motor Vehicles in 1956. He speaks about working with Mark Hatfield as assistant secretary of state from 1957 to 1959, and describes the make-up of Hatfield's staff, including Travis Cross. He also talks about Hatfield's relationship with the Oregon Republican Party; Hatfield's campaigns for Oregon governor; and his own friendship with Hatfield.

Nunn discusses serving as chief of staff for Hatfield from 1959 to 1967, including Hatfield's efforts to reorganize the state government, and Hatfield's working relationship with the Legislature, as well as with lobbyists. He also describes Hatfield's views on the Vietnam War; efforts toward Oregon's economic development; and the 1968 Republican Convention when Hatfield was being considered as Richard Nixon's running mate. He also discusses Hatfield's involvement with Barry Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign. Nunn then discusses serving as chief of staff for Hatfield for three months in 1967 after Hatfield was elected as a U.S. senator. He talks about setting up an office in Washington, D.C., and some of the people who made up Hatfield's new staff, including Sam Mallicoat and Gerry Frank. He closes the interview by discussing his departure from Hatfield's staff and his return to Oregon.

Nunn, Warne H. (Warne Henry), 1920-2007

Oral history interview with Wendell Wyatt

This oral history interview with Wendell Wyatt was conducted by Clark Hansen from May 17-19, 1988. In this interview, Wyatt briefly discusses his family background and early life in Eugene, Oregon, particularly the development of his political beliefs. He talks about his early career, including working as a special agent for the FBI, serving in the Marines during World War II, and practicing law in Astoria, Oregon. He then discusses his involvement with the Republican Party and his legislative career. He shares his memories of Mark Hatfield, including Hatfield's relationship with Oregon's political parties, Hatfield's primary political opponents, and Hatfield's involvement with the 1964 Barry Goldwater presidential campaign.

Wyatt then discusses serving in the U.S. House of Representatives, including his campaigns. He talks about working with Hatfield, then governor of Oregon, on Oregon-focused legislation, as well as working with Hatfield's staff. He also talks about Hatfield's opposition to the Vietnam War and his 1966 campaign for U.S. Senate. Wyatt also describes U.S. Senator Wayne Morse. He goes on to speak further about Hatfield, including his staff in Washington, D.C., and Hatfield's pacifism and political alignment. He speaks at length about the 1968 Republican Convention when Hatfield was being considered as Richard Nixon's running mate, as well as Hatfield's continued opposition to the Vietnam War and legislation he worked on related to it. Wyatt talks about the Oregon Republican Party's structure, Walter Huss as its chair, and the party's increasing conservatism. He closes the interview by discussing Hatfield's effectiveness as a U.S. senator, as well as Wyatt's social relationship with Hatfield.

Wyatt, Wendell William, 1917-2009

Oral history interview with Travis Cross

This oral history interview with Travis Cross was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Cross' office at St. Vincent's Hospital and at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland, Oregon, from October 8 to November 23, 1987. In this interview, Cross discusses his family background and early life in Salem, Oregon, including growing up in the same neighborhood as Mark Hatfield. He then talks about attending Willamette University at the same time as Hatfield, and how they became more closely acquainted. He talks about Hatfield's early life, military service during World War II, and college experiences at Stanford University and Willamette University. He talks about Hatfield's admiration for Herbert Hoover and Dwight D. Eisenhower; and about working at Willamette University at the same time as Hatfield.

Cross then discusses acting as an aide throughout Hatfield's Oregon political career, from 1957 to 1967. He discusses Hatfield as Oregon secretary of state, including helping with campaigns, and the make-up of Hatfield's staff. He describes the duties of the secretary of state, including running the elections division and serving on the board of control; some of their accomplishments during that time; and working with Governor Bob Holmes.

Cross talks about Hatfield as Oregon governor from 1959 to 1967. He discusses the appointment of Howard Appling as secretary of state, Hatfield's relationship with the Oregon Republican Party, and Hatfield's attempts to reorganize state government. He discusses working with the Oregon Legislature, appointments Hatfield made, and dealing with the press. Cross talks about Hatfield's political opponents, including Howard Morgan and Robert Y. Thornton. He also discusses Hatfield's opposition to the Vietnam War, and his support for Barry Goldwater during the 1964 Republican presidential primary. He talks about Hatfield's 1966 campaign for the U.S. Senate, and his decision to leave Hatfield's staff. He discusses Hatfield's Washington, D.C., staff, including Gerry Frank. He also describes Glenn Jackson and Monte Montgomery. Cross closes the interview by discussing his activities after leaving Hatfield's staff and their continued friendship.

Cross, Travis (William Travis), 1927-2004

Oral history interview with Rick Rolf

This oral history interview with Rick Rolf was conducted by Michael O'Rourke in Washington, D.C., and at the Benson Hotel in Portland, Oregon, from June 3 to September 24, 1988. In this interview, Rolf very briefly discusses his family background and early life in Ontario, Oregon. He talks about how he first came into contact with U.S. Senator Mark Hatfield in 1972 and how he got involved in politics as a result of the war in Vietnam. He discusses working for Hatfield as an intern after college and working toward an embargo on Ugandan coffee. He talks about other members of Hatfield's staff, including Gerry Frank. Rolf discusses how Hatfield interacted with other senators; Hatfield's opinion of the Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan administrations; and Hatfield's work as chair of the Senate Appropriations Committee. Rolf speaks at length about Hatfield's opposition to much of the Reagan administration's agenda, both foreign and domestic. He discusses his foreign policy work of the 1980s, including two trips he took to El Salvador, the peace process in Nicaragua, and observing elections in Guatemala. He also discusses the geopolitics of the Middle East. He talks about Hatfield's feelings on the War Powers Act; Hatfield's filibuster against Selective Service; and Hatfield's opposition to nuclear weapons and nerve gas. He closes the interview by discussing Hatfield's real estate scandal and how it was resolved.

Rolf, Rick (S. Richard), 1955-

Oral history interview with Jim Towey

This oral history interview with Jim Towey was conducted by Jim Strassmaier on June 2, 1988. In this interview, Towey discusses his family background and early life in Jacksonville, Florida, including his Catholic upbringing. He talks about studying law at Florida State University, including working summer jobs and playing basketball. He then discusses his decision to forgo the practice of law and instead follow a spiritual calling to Washington, D.C. He describes how he came to be part of U.S. Senator Mark Hatfield's staff in 1982; his duties as a legislative assistant and later legislative director; and some of the other members of the senator's staff. Towey relates a few anecdotes regarding Hatfield's personality and spirituality. Using abortion legislation as an example, he describes the way the staff would engage with Hatfield on specific legislation and how the senator made decisions. He also describes working on improving conditions for refugees and the abuses he witnessed, as well as his feelings on President Ronald Reagan's agenda in general. Towey speaks at length about a real estate scandal during Hatfield's 1984 re-election campaign and how they dealt with it. He closes the interview by discussing Hatfield's spiritual life.

Towey, Jim

Oral history interview with Marian J. Bruner

This oral history interview with Marian J. Bruner was conducted by Clark Hansen at Bruner's home in Bowie, Maryland, on June 18, 1988. In this interview, Bruner discusses her family background and early life in Iowa. She talks about her schooling and her interest in Christian education; working for the Reform Church in New York City; and how she got a job on the staff of U.S. Senator Mark Hatfield. She talks about the other members of Hatfield's staff, and discusses some of her duties as caseworker early in Hatfield's senatorial career, including correspondence and some of the cases she handled. She then discusses Hatfield's opposition to the Vietnam War and the related cases she dealt with, including conscientious objectors. She then speaks about her promotion to executive assistant and the change in her duties, including making travel arrangements and managing Hatfield's schedule. Bruner discusses the types of engagements she arranged and Hatfield's work-life balance, as well as his hobbies and personal life. She also talks often about Hatfield's Christian faith and his political philosophy. She discusses Hatfield's relationship with his staff, his role in designing a few commemorative medals, and his committee assignments, particularly the appropriations committee. She closes the interview by discussing her decision to leave Hatfield's staff at the end of 1980.

Bruner, Marian J. (Marian Jeanette), 1915-2018

Oral history interview with Thomas R. Getman

This oral history interview with Thomas R. Getman was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Getman's offices at World Vision in Washington, D.C., from June 3-8, 1988. In this interview, Getman discusses his family background and early life in Luverne, Minnesota, particularly the development of his religious and political beliefs. He then discusses attending Wheaton College in Chicago, Illinois, and working with Young Life ministries in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, where he heard Mark Hatfield speak for the first time. He talks about his longstanding admiration for Hatfield; his involvement with Young Life ministries in New England; and his work for Gerald R. Ford, including a story about being with the Ford family on the night of the 1976 presidential election. He then describes how he came to be on Hatfield's staff; discusses other staff members, particularly Doug Coe and Gerry Frank; and talks about how the staff and Hatfield interacted. Getman discusses his duties as legislative director, Hatfield's relationship with the Republican Party, and the senator's stance on several issues, including abortion. He speaks at length about Hatfield's personality, spirituality, and legislative agenda. He also talks about preacher Billy Graham, as well as the evangelical voting bloc. He discusses the Reagan administration's push for privatization and his own opinion on the limits of the private sector, particularly in regard to health care. He speaks about Hatfield's efforts to mitigate the damaging effects of privatization in his role as chair of the appropriations committee. He then talks about his work on legislation regarding Africa, particularly South Africa. He discusses the events surrounding Rajneeshpuram, and being in Africa on vacation during Hatfield's real estate scandal. He closes the interview by reflecting on the legacy and accomplishments of Hatfield's political career.

Getman, Thomas R.

Oral history interview with J. Keith Kennedy

This oral history interview with J. Keith Kennedy was conducted by Jim Strassmaier in Kennedy's office on June 8, 1988. In this interview, Kennedy discusses his family background and early life in Charlotte, North Carolina. He talks about his college education at Duke University in North Carolina, including influential professors. He then talks about interning for U.S. Senator Mark Hatfield from 1972 to 1973, writing speeches, researching issues and political opponents, and assisting Wes Michaelson. He discusses Hatfield's 1972 re-election campaign against Wayne Morse, and Hatfield's opposition to the Vietnam War, as well as Hatfield's feelings about President Richard Nixon's impeachment. He then discusses working as a legislative assistant for Hatfield from 1974 to 1977. Next, he speaks about his work on the Select Committee on Indian Affairs from 1977 to 1981, and on the Senate Appropriations Committee from 1981 to the time of this interview in 1988. Kennedy talks about Hatfield's legislative agenda and stance on some controversial issues, including the draft. He also talks about other members of Hatfield's staff, including Frank Cook. Kennedy closes the interview by discussing Hatfield's personality and spirituality, as well as Hatfield's relationship with his fellow legislators.

Kennedy, J. Keith

Oral history interview with Janet L. Lamos

This oral history interview with Janet L. Lamos was conducted by Michael O'Rourke in Washington, D.C., from June 3-8, 1988. In this interview, Lamos discusses her family background and early life in upstate New York. She briefly describes her work history, then talks about working as a typist for U.S. Senator Mark Hatfield. She discusses her disagreement with Hatfield's stance on several issues, including the Vietnam War. Lamos describes her promotion to Hatfield's executive assistant in 1980 and the duties of that position, including managing Hatfield's schedule. She also describes some of the other members of Hatfield's staff, including Wes Michaelson and Gerry Frank, as well as how Hatfield interacted with his staff. She speaks at length about Hatfield's personality, spirituality, and work-life balance; the real estate scandal that plagued Hatfield in 1984; and Hatfield's family and personal life. She also discusses Hatfield's relationship with the evangelical voting bloc, the President Ronald Reagan administration, and President Richard Nixon.

Lamos, Janet L., 1949-

Oral history interview with Sam H. Mallicoat

This oral history interview with Sam H. Mallicoat was conducted by Clark Hansen at Mallicoat's home in Tigard, Oregon, from May 23-27, 1988. In this interview, Mallicoat discusses his family background and early life in rural Oregon. He talks about his early career as an educator in Oregon, his naval service in the Pacific Theater during World War II, and starting a family. He then talks about meeting Mark Hatfield while in law school and about returning to the U.S. Navy in order to teach at the naval training center in Portland, Oregon, in 1948. He talks about beginning to work in Oregon politics after leaving the Navy in 1955 to become a lobbyist for the Oregon Railroad Association. He also discusses Mark Hatfield's political career during this time. He then discusses serving as the director of planning and development for the state of Oregon from 1961 to 1967, while Hatfield was governor of Oregon. He focuses particularly on his interactions with Hatfield's staff, and on working with U.S. Senator Wayne Morse to bring Boeing to Boardman, Oregon. He also talks about Hatfield's relationship to his constituents and industries while governor, as well as Hatfield's opposition to the Vietnam War.

Mallicoat talks about Hatfield's election to the U.S. Senate in 1966 and how he subsequently became Hatfield's chief of staff. He talks about the other members of Hatfield's staff, Hatfield's committee assignments, and his continued opposition to the Vietnam War. He talks about Hatfield's role in the 1968 Republican convention, as well as Hatfield's relationship to the Republican Party, particularly with Tom McCall. He also discusses hate mail and death threats that Hatfield received, legislation Hatfield was involved with, and Hatfield's relationship with other senators. He talks about Hatfield's financial situation; leaving Hatfield's staff in 1973 to return to Oregon; and the changes made in Hatfield's staff by his successor, Gerry Frank. He closes the interview by talking about fundraising, Hatfield's closest advisors, particularly Frank, and his own continued relationship with Hatfield.

Mallicoat, S. H., 1915-2010

Oral history interview with Jack Robertson

This oral history interview with Jack Robertson was conducted by Clark Hansen in Robertson's office at the Bonneville Power Administration in Portland, Oregon, from November 7 to December 30, 1988. In this interview, Robertson discusses his family background and early life in Portland, including the evolution of his political beliefs. He then talks about attending Stanford University, including studying abroad in Austria. He focuses particularly on student protests against the Vietnam War.

Robertson talks about joining U.S. Senator Mark Hatfield's staff in 1973, after he worked as a volunteer for Hatfield's 1972 re-election campaign. He describes Hatfield's campaign against Wayne Morse. He then talks about his duties as a legislative aide, and later press secretary, from 1973 to 1982, including speechwriting, research, and correspondence. He discusses Hatfield's relationship with other Oregon Republican politicians, including Tom McCall and Bob Packwood. He speaks at length about other members of Hatfield's staff and how Hatfield interacted with them. He also discusses speeches that he wrote for Hatfield, including some on topics such as the Middle East and refugees. He also talks about Hatfield's early use of computers in his office; some of Hatfield's legislative victories in the Senate Appropriations Committee; and Hatfield's personality. Robertson talks about working on legislation to freeze the creation of nuclear weapons. He speaks at length about the procedures of the Senate Appropriations Committee. He discusses Hatfield's relationship with the Republican Party; other senators and political figures; the presidential administrations of Richard Nixon, Jimmy Carter, and Ronald Reagan; and the press. He also talks about a real estate scandal that affected Hatfield in 1984. He speaks at length about how Hatfield's personal morality influenced his votes on legislation, particularly regarding weapons and war. He describes the Northwest Power Planning Act, as well as Hatfield's views on nuclear power; the debate about funding for a neutron bomb; and Hatfield's foreign policy stances, particularly regarding Israel, Iran, and Panama. He also describes Hatfield's and his staff's reactions to Watergate; Hatfield's visit with Mother Theresa; Hatfield's efforts to locate soldiers missing in action in Vietnam; and chemical weapons in Oregon. He discusses Hatfield's stance on free trade, local government, and environmental issues. Robertson talks about how the Senate and Hatfield changed over the years. He closes the interview by discussing Hatfield's legacy, his own reasons for leaving Hatfield's staff, and his activities since then.

Robertson, Jack (John Strait), 1949-

Oral history interview with Riki P. Sheehan

This oral history interview with Riki P. Sheehan was conducted by Michael O'Rourke from June 2-11, 1988. In this interview, Sheehan discusses coming to Washington, D.C., after graduating from Cornell University in 1973. She describes the atmosphere of the city during the Watergate scandal and beginning to work with U.S. Senator Mark Hatfield, particularly her job interview. She discusses the issues on which she disagreed with Hatfield, including on U.S.-Israeli relations and abortion. She describes her duties as a legislative assistant and working with other members of Hatfield's staff. She discusses Hatfield's personality and spirituality, as well as how Hatfield's position on many issues differed from that of other Republicans. She talks about cases she worked on when she first joined Hatfield's staff and describes how Hatfield would take a personal interest in some of them. Sheehan discusses Hatfield's relationship with other senators, including John Stennis, as well as Hatfield's personal and family life. She speaks at length about Hatfield's chairmanship of the Senate Appropriations Committee and her work on that committee's staff. She also describes Hatfield's relationship with the administrations of presidents Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan. Sheehan discusses Hatfield's interest in and support for Oregon Health Sciences University (now Oregon Health & Science University), as well as funding for AIDS research. She closes the interview by discussing a real estate scandal that affected Hatfield in 1984, Hatfield's family life, and his legacy.

Sheehan, Riki P. (Fredrica Poster), 1951-

Oral history interview with David S. Barrows

This oral history interview with David S. Barrows was conducted by Jim Strassmaier from January 31 to March 13, 2000. In this interview, Barrows discusses his family history and childhood in the San Francisco Bay Area of California and in Washington, D.C., as well as his high school education in California. He then talks about attending Willamette University, including having Mark Hatfield as a professor and mentor. Barrows discusses working as a page in the Oregon Legislature and his interest in a career as a lobbyist. He talks briefly about going to law school and practicing law. Barrows then talks about lobbying for the Fairview Home in the 1959 and 1961 legislative sessions, as well as his later lobbying work for tobacco wholesalers and the Oregon Savings and Loan League. His lobbying work included topics such sterilization, taxation, and financial regulations. He also talks about the history of Oregon and California Railroad Revested Lands and his lobbying for the Association of O & C Counties. He also speaks in great detail about legislative procedure, the rules regulating lobbyists, and the relationship between lobbyists and legislators. Barrows closes the interview with a discussion of his lobbying work on behalf of the Oregon Historical Society.

Barrows, David S. (David Stow), 1935-2014