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Oral history interview with Joyce Braden Harris [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Joyce Braden Harris was conducted by Jan Dilg at Education Northwest in Portland, Oregon, from November 19 to December 12, 2018. Joyce Braden Harris was nominated by Oregonians as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was conducted in three sessions. In the first interview session, conducted on November 19, 2018, Harris discusses her family background and early life with her grandmother in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City, and then with her parents and siblings in Madrid, Spain. She discusses her experiences as the only member of her family to speak Spanish and as the only black person in her class. She also describes growing up in Harlem and its community. She discusses her education in New York, including a teacher strike in 1968; starting a black literature class; racism that she, her teachers, and other students faced; and her early activism and leadership roles. She also talks about the Vietnam War, particularly its effect on two of her brothers, who served in the Air Force during that time. She discusses her experiences at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, including how she chose that school. She also speaks about her and her brothers’ experiences with police. She talks about events that shaped her political outlook, including the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.; her love of mystery novels by black women authors; and people who have influenced her. She discusses some of the awards she has received, her involvement in annual Kwanzaa celebrations, and her work as an educator. In the second interview session, conducted on December 3, 2018, Harris discusses her experiences at Reed College in Portland, including her efforts to make the curriculum less Eurocentric. She talks about her involvement with Ron Herndon and the black community in Portland; racism she experienced and witnessed; and her involvement with the Black Student Union. She describes the origins of the Black Educational Center, which provided free summer education to black youth and became a full-time private school in 1974. She also talks about continuing her studies at Portland State University. She speaks at length about her work as an educator, including designing lessons for her students, working with parents, and taking her students on field trips to meet public figures. She then discusses working at the Talking Drum bookstore and her involvement in Portland Kwanzaa celebrations. She speaks at length about working with Portland Public Schools to improve the educational environment, particularly for black students. She talks about working with the Northwest Regional Education Laboratory beginning in 1992. She closes the session by discussing her family life. In the third session, conducted on December 12, 2018, Harris discusses the work of the Black United Front towards providing quality, non-racist education. She also talks about her involvement with the BUF. She talks about the presence of police in schools, the rise of charter schools, and organizing black college fairs. She discusses her involvement with the Albina Ministerial Alliance Coalition for Justice and Police Reform, including the coalition’s efforts toward a federal investigation of police violence in Portland. She also outlines a brief history of police killings of black people in Portland and describes some of the memorials she attended. She then describes organizing a welcoming committee and other volunteer efforts for New Orleans evacuees in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. She also shares the story of arranging a funeral for a baby, who was found in a dumpster, and whom she named Baby Precious. She closes the interview by talking about some of the awards and other recognition she has received, and her plans for the future.

Harris, Joyce Braden, 1951-

Oral history interview with Bill Curtin [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Bill Curtin was conducted by Greta K. Smith at Curtin's home in Portland, Oregon, from September 24 to November 16, 2018. Bill Curtin was nominated by Oregonians to be interviewed as part of a program by the Oregon Historical Society Research Library to enhance and expand the range of voices in the library's collections. Interviewees are selected from the pool of nominees by a staff committee appointed by the historical society's executive director. The interview was conducted in four sessions. In the first interview session, conducted on September 24, 2018, Curtin discusses his family history and early life in the Laurelhurst neighborhood of Portland, including his Irish-Catholic heritage and discrimination his family faced as a result. He speaks at length about his father, Victor Aloysius Curtin, and his father's career as a police officer in the Portland Police Bureau and involvement with Portland's black community. He discusses his early interest in joining the Catholic priesthood. He then talks about his education at St. Edward Seminary in Kenmore, Washington, including the changes in the Catholic Church after World War II, some of his professors and fellow students, and his interest in social justice issues. He also talks about community service he did during seminary; shares his memories of Vietnam War protests; and discusses how the issue of birth control affected the church. In the second interview session, conducted on October 12, 2018, Curtin revisits the topic of his father's career as a police officer in the Portland Police Bureau. He talks about his reasons for joining the Catholic priesthood; briefly discusses his involvement in Vietnam War protests; and speaks about his experiences as a priest at St. Charles Church in Portland, including his involvement with Adams High School and going on ride-alongs with the Portland Police Bureau. He then discusses his service as a priest at Immaculate Heart of Mary Catholic Church in the Albina neighborhood of Portland, including his involvement with Portland's black community, his role with the school at Immaculate Heart, and providing pastoral care to patients at Legacy Emanuel Hospital. He also talks about funding the church's programs, as well as the arrest of priest Tom Laughlin for child molestation. In the third interview session, conducted on October 29, 2018, Curtin continues discussing his service as a priest at Immaculate Heart, including his involvement with Portland's black community, his role with the school at Immaculate Heart, and the church's relationship with the Portland Police Bureau. He talks about the effect the Legacy Emanuel Hospital expansion project had on the Albina neighborhood and community; discusses his involvement with the Model Cities program; and talks about his work with the Albina Fair Share program. He also speaks about his father's involvement with addiction recovery programs. He then discusses his decision to leave the priesthood in 1981. In the fourth and final interview session, conducted on November 16, 2018, Curtin revisits the topic of his work with Albina Fair Share. He also talks about his work towards utility rate reform with Oregon Fair Share. He discusses the relationship between the Portland Police Bureau and the Portland black community; talks about his friendship with Penny Harrington, the first woman police chief in Portland; and speaks about his involvement with Central City Concern and talks about its roots in detoxification programs. He talks about taking his parishioners camping and on other nature excursions. He then revisits the topic of leaving the priesthood in 1981, describing his transition to secular life. He talks about working in security at Reed College and then Lewis and Clark College; discusses his marriage to Liddy Krier, and talks about her children, their families, and their careers; and talks about his activities since retiring in 2006. He reflects on his relationship with Portland's black community and on racism he observed, and shares his thoughts on prison and police reform. He closes the interview by discussing current politics and talking about his own role in politics with both Albina Fair Share and Oregon Fair Share.

Curtin, Bill (William Craib), 1942-

Oral History Interview with Bette Lee, by Sandy Polishuk [Transcript]

Transcript. Bette Lee discusses her activism and career in photographing protests, beginning in the San Francisco Bay Area in the 1980s, and later in Portland, Oregon. She discusses several specific photographs, many of which can be found in the transcript. Protests and movements discussed include the Portland Alliance, Indie Media, World trade Organization, Iraq War, Occupy Wall Street, Livermore Action Group, etc.

Lee, Bette

Oral history interview with Frank A. Bauman [Transcript]

Transcript. This interview with Frank Anthony Bauman was conducted by Karen E. Saul at Bauman’s office at the Carriage House and in the Standard Plaza Building in Portland, Oregon, from November 5, 2005, to May 15, 2007. In the interview, while looking at family photographs, Bauman discusses his early life and childhood in Northeast Portland, including attending Grant High School and delivering newspapers. He then discusses attending Stanford University, including studying economics and his recollections of the lead-up to World War II and the attack on Pearl Harbor. Bauman also talks about his experiences in the Navy during World War II, including learning Japanese; deployment to the South Pacific, particularly Peleliu; treatment and interrogation of Japanese prisoners of war; and visiting Hiroshima after the war. He goes on to describe studying at Yale Law School and establishing himself as a lawyer in Portland. He also discusses his wife, Mildred Bauman, and her involvement in the Great Books Program; studying international law at the University of London; and working at various law firms in Portland, including Veatch, Bauman & Lovett, and Keane, Haessler, Bauman & Harper. He goes on to talk about cases he argued before the Oregon Supreme Court and District Court, including Zucker v. Mitchell and Ritchie v. Lamb. Bauman also discusses volunteering as a civil rights lawyer in Mississippi; his involvement with the World Affairs Council; and his involvement with the United Nations, particularly focusing on UNICEF, General Paul Cullen, and his service as U.N. senior officer to Australasia.

Bauman, Frank A. (Frank Anthony), 1921-

Oral history interview with Jacque Jurkins [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Jacque Jurkins was conducted by Mary Ellen Smith at the Multnomah Law Library in Portland, Oregon, from February 23, 2006, to April 13, 2007. In this interview, Jurkins discusses her early life and high school experience in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. She then talks about attending the University of Wisconsin at Oshkosh and the discouragement she received from professors when she expressed her desire to become a lawyer. She speaks about studying law at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, including her experience as one of only a few women in the law school, her social life, and some of her professors. She also describes the events that led her to working in the university’s law library. She talks about her decision to go to library school and pursue a career as a law librarian. She discusses studying law librarianship at the University of Washington, including her primary professor, Marian Gallagher; her fellow students; and working in the university’s library. She then talks about working at the University of Washington law library, helping to establish the Pacific Rim Library, and her experience reorganizing the Colorado Supreme Court Library.Jurkins discusses coming to Portland, Oregon, in 1964 to head the Multnomah Law Library. She talks about the disarray in which she found the library and her work reorganizing it. She describes providing organizational help for many other law libraries in Oregon. She discusses the expansion of the law library, the different buildings it has occupied, and her staff. She talks about the changes in information technology and how that has affected her library work, as well as the use of the library. She talks about the increased security at the library and courthouses as a result of shootings. She discusses some of the lawyers, judges, and politicians who patronized the library; setting up a library at the Northwestern School of Law at Lewis and Clark College; and her role in the foundation of the Oregon Council of Law Libraries. She discusses teaching classes on legal research at Portland Community College, as well as her involvement with the Multnomah County Bar Association and the American Association of Law Libraries. She closes the interview by talking about her hobbies.

Jurkins, Jacque (Jacquelyn), 1928-

Oral history interview with Caroline P. Stoel [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Caroline P. Stoel was conducted by Adair Law from October 30 to December 5, 2006. Along with the interview recordings, the collection includes an incomplete transcript. In this interview, Stoel discusses her family background and early life in Lexington, North Carolina, including her early education and childhood friends. She talks about attending Duke University, including her social life. She then talks about her experience as one the few women attending the Duke University Law School. She also discusses meeting Thomas B. Stoel and their subsequent marriage. She describes the sexism she faced when trying to begin her legal career in Portland, Oregon. She talks about working and raising young children while Thomas Stoel was serving in the U.S. Navy during World War II. She discusses her involvement in her children’s education in the Riverdale School District; her acquaintanceship with Richard Nixon; and her decision to return to college. She closes the interview by talking about her children, their careers, and their families.

Stoel, Caroline P.

Oral history interview with Jacob B. Tanzer [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Jacob B. Tanzer was conducted by Peter C. Richter from October 5, 2005, to April 4, 2006. In this interview, Tanzer discusses his family background and early life in Portland, Oregon. He briefly talks about his college experiences at the University of Oregon, Stanford University, and Reed College. He then talks about studying law at the University of Oregon, including his part-time jobs. He discusses practicing law in Portland and deciding to pursue a career as a public prosecutor instead. He talks about working for the U.S. Department of Justice in the organized crime division during the John F. Kennedy administration, particularly his work on the case of civil rights workers murdered in Mississippi in 1964. Tanzer discusses his reasons for leaving the U.S. Department of Justice that same year to return to Portland as a Multnomah County deputy district attorney. He talks about his fellow prosecutors, defense lawyers he argued against, and some of the judges he argued before. He discusses his appointment as Oregon’s first solicitor general in 1969 and describes some of the cases he prosecuted. He also talks about serving as director of the Oregon Department of Human Services from its inception in 1971 until 1973. He describes the types of social welfare programs he administered, discusses fighting budget cuts, and talks about working with Governor Tom McCall. He also speaks at length about volunteering with the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law in Mississippi for one month in 1967 and describes many of the cases he worked on. Tanzer discusses serving on the Oregon Court of Appeals from 1973 to 1980, and on the Oregon Supreme Court from 1980 to 1982. He talks about some of the judges he served with, particularly Hans Linde, and some of the opinions he wrote. He closes the interview by discussing the relationship between the legislative and judicial branches of state government; changes in the judiciary; and his advice for aspiring lawyers.

Tanzer, Jacob B., 1935-2018

Oral history interview with Kristine Olson [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Kristine Olson was conducted by Kenneth R. Perry from October 24 to December 7, 2005. In this interview, Olson discusses her family background and early life in Queens, New York, including her early education, her childhood pets, and her experience moving to a more affluent neighborhood at age 13. She also talks about her experience growing up in a neighborhood that was equal parts Jewish and Catholic. She discusses her early involvement in Democratic politics, particularly her activities during the civil rights movement. Olson talks about her experience at Wellesley College in Boston, Massachusetts, including her involvement in several student political organizations, such as the Students for a Democratic Society, Wellesley Against Racism, and ETHOS, as well as her social life and acquaintanceship with Hillary Rodham Clinton. She also briefly talks about attending Yale Law School. Olson then discusses living in the Cosey Beach Commune in the 1970s, meeting Jeff Rogers and their subsequent marriage, and beginning her law career as a clerk for U.S. District Court Judge Robert Zampano. She describes moving to Oregon in 1973 and clerking for U.S. District Court Judge James Burns.

Olson discusses working as an assistant U.S. attorney with Sid Lezak from 1974 to 1984. She talks about taking time off to have children and the flexibility the U.S. attorney’s office afforded her. She describes her poor relationship with Lezak’s successor, Charlie Turner, and how his reaction to her handling of the prosecution of Black Panther Kent Ford resulted in her departure from the U.S. attorney’s office. She then describes her appointment as U.S. Attorney for the District of Oregon in 1994, including opposition from Charlie Turner, her interview with Attorney General Janet Reno, and her confirmation hearing. She describes the differences between how she and Turner ran the U.S. attorney’s office, particularly Turner’s emphasis on drug and pornography laws as opposed to her emphasis on civil rights and environmental laws. She talks about her admiration for Sid Lezak and Janet Reno, her brief experience working with Attorney General John Ashcroft, and her reasons for leaving office in 2001. She discusses working as legal counsel for Oregon Congressman Earl Blumenauer from 2001 to 2003.

Olson talks about her retirement activities, including her involvement with numerous civic organizations. She also talks about her friendship with Grand Ronde Tribal Council member Kathryn Harrison and about writing Harrison’s biography, “Standing Tall.” She also discusses her second marriage to Les Swanson. Olson closes the interview by describing some of her most influential professors, including Tom Emerson at Yale and Ingrid Staller at Wellesley.

Olson, Kristine

Oral history interview with Edward Leavy [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Edward Leavy was conducted by Clark Hansen in Leavy’s chambers at the U.S. District Courthouse (known as the Mark O. Hatfield U.S. Courthouse) in Portland, Oregon, from March 2 to April 13, 2004. The portion of the interview conducted on March 30, 2004 (Tapes 10 through 12) appears to have been simultaneously recorded on audiocassette and video. In the audio recording, the parties make reference to the video recording, which is not included in this collection.

In this interview, Leavy discusses his family background and early life on a hops farm in Butteville, Oregon, including his memories of the Depression and his education. He talks about attending the University of Portland and studying at Notre Dame Law School, including his reasons for attending Catholic schools. He also speaks about how his faith informs his morality and judicial decisions, particularly regarding the Fifth Amendment. He discusses serving as a deputy district attorney for Lane County and some of the cases he prosecuted. He reflects at length upon the byzantine workings of the justice system, its strengths and weaknesses, and a judge’s role within it.

Leavy discusses his election to the positions of Lane County District Court judge and Circuit Court judge, as well as the elections of other judges in Oregon. He talks about some of the cases he heard and some decisions of his that were reversed. He speaks at length about many of the judges he knew, including Ted Goodwin and Otto Skopil. He discusses the differences between state and federal courts. Leavy describes the magistrate system during the years he was a U.S. Magistrate for the U.S. District Court of Oregon. He then speaks at length about mediating cases and reaching settlements. He discusses some controversial issues he’s had to rule on, including drug use, the death penalty, and abortion. He also speaks briefly about his family life.

Leavy discusses serving as a judge on the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, beginning with his appointment by President Ronald Reagan in 1987. He discusses some of the cases he heard, including on Rajneeshpuram. He describes the various duties of federal judges; the processes and procedures of the Court of Appeals; and how it differs from the U.S. District Court of Oregon. He talks about his experience as a senior judge on the Court of Appeals since 1997, including mediating for U.S. v. Wen Ho Lee. He then talks about serving on the Surveillance Court of Review from 2001 to 2008, including the history and duties of that court. He also talks about writing opinions, his staff and law clerks, and the workload on the Court of Appeals. He closes the interview by discussing his thoughts on the trend of civil penalties in lieu of criminal, and concerns about the right to privacy.

Leavy, Edward, 1929-

Oral history interview with Helen J. Frye [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Helen J. Frye was conducted by Clark Hansen at the Mark O. Hatfield Federal Courthouse in Portland, Oregon, from January 9 to May 20, 2002. In this interview, Frye discusses her family background and early life in Klamath Falls, Oregon. She talks about her mother and brother contracting tuberculosis; how she was raised by her grandparents; and her early education. She then discusses attending the University of Oregon, including her professors; her involvement in student government and politics in general; and meeting Bill Frye and their subsequent marriage. She talks about teaching high school in Eugene, raising a family, and returning to the University of Oregon to study law.Frye briefly discusses practicing law in Eugene and specializing in adoption. She talks about serving as a judge on the Lane County Circuit Court, including her appointment by Governor Tom McCall. She also discusses serving as a judge on the U.S. District Court, including her appointment by President Jimmy Carter. She talks about the cases she heard; judges she served with; and court procedure. She discusses sentencing; the role of dissent in lower courts; and the role of juries. She closes the interview by discussing her legal philosophy and how her opinions have evolved over the years.

Frye, Helen J. (Helen Jackson), 1930-

Oral history interview with Roosevelt Robinson [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Roosevelt Robinson was conducted by Clark Hansen at Robinson's home in Portland, Oregon, from February 12 to March 10, 2004. In this interview, Robsinson discusses his family background and early life in Georgia; he describes life as a black person in the segregated South, his early education, and growing up on a farm. He talks about attending Southwestern Christian College in Texas, and moving to Portland, Oregon, after graduation. He describes working for National Biscuit Company (now known as Nabisco Inc.), racism he faced in Oregon, and his marriage to and later divorce from Beverlee Foreman. He then talks about giving up plans to become a minister and instead attending Northwestern School of Law at Lewis & Clark College. He also talks about taking the Oregon Bar exam.Robinson discusses starting his private law practice in Portland. He talks about arguing cases before Judge Gus Solomon and some of the cases he handled. He then discusses working as a Multnomah County deputy district attorney. He talks about cases he prosecuted (and a few he chose not to prosecute), and arguing against public defenders. He also discusses systemic racism in the criminal justice system. He discusses serving on the Oregon Parole Board, including some of the decisions he made. He discusses serving as a judge on the Multnomah County Circuit Court, including his appointment in 1990. He also talks about his involvement with the Oregon Bar Association, as well as numerous other organizations. He discusses cases he heard on the Circuit Court, judicial procedure, and programs to reduce recidivism. He discusses his involvement with the community court program and the drug diversion court program. He closes the interview by talking about his children, their families, and their careers; his health; and the Roosevelt Robinson scholarship fund.

Robinson, Roosevelt, 1941-2004

Oral history interview with George M. Joseph [Index]

Index. This oral history interview with George M. Joseph was conducted by Michael O’Rourke at Joseph’s home in Portland, Oregon, from August 7 to November 7, 2001, and on February 25, 2002. The portion of the interview recorded on February 25, 2002, was conducted at the Friendship Health Center in Portland, where Joseph was recovering from a broken leg. The first tape of this 27-tape interview features a brief overview of Joseph’s entire life and career. Beginning from Tape 2 of this interview, Joseph discusses his family background and early life in Boise, Idaho, including a store his mother ran in Boise, and the early death of his father from tuberculosis of the bone. He also describes a 1938 visit from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Boise; his awareness of the Depression; the Mormon community in Boise; and his family’s own Catholicism. He also speaks about contracting polio as a child and the lifelong physical issues it caused, as well as his memories of the internment of Japanese-Americans, and other events, during World War II. He then discusses his education, including attending Menlo School in Atherton, California, and Boise Junior College (now Boise State University) in Boise, Idaho; hitchhiking home; and his social life. He also discusses attending the University of San Francisco and Reed College in Portland, Oregon, including his social life and the development of his political views. He speaks at length about a recurrence of polio during his senior year at Reed and the extensive treatment and physical therapy he undertook as a result. He then talks about studying law at the University of Chicago, including his divorce from his first wife, Elizabeth Kalisher, and subsequent marriage to Elizabeth Starr, as well as coming to the realization that he did not want to be a lawyer. He describes Elizabeth Starr’s family background and early life, as well as their wedding and honeymoon. He also talks about his involvement with the Democratic Party, particularly acting as an alternate delegate for the 1956 Democratic National Convention.

Joseph discusses his return to Oregon in 1955 and his early legal career as a law clerk for Oregon Supreme Court Justice George Rossman. He briefly describes the judges on the Oregon Supreme Court at that time, as well as some of the cases Rossman presided over. He discusses teaching law at many different universities outside Oregon, including Ohio Northern University. He then describes working in the Multnomah County district attorney’s office under George Van Hoomisen, as well as his ambitions of becoming a judge. He talks about several cases he prosecuted and making a name for himself as a criminal appellate prosecutor; the focus of the district attorney’s office on vice cases, including an undercover operation that Joseph compromised; and civil rights cases he was involved with, particularly involving the people with mental illnesses. He talks about the creation of the Oregon Court of Appeals and the subsequent increase in the workload of the district attorney’s office; Jacob B. Tanzer and other county-level judges; and his relationship with Multnomah County sheriff, and later Multnomah County commissioner, Don E. Clark. He then talks about his brief career as a lawyer in various private law firms in Portland, his involvement in the passage of the Multnomah County Home Rule Charter, and his ongoing attempts to become a judge. He speaks at length about Multnomah County politics and Don Clark’s accomplishments as county commissioner. He talks about serving as Multnomah County counsel, including working on public power and city-county consolidation. He also discusses briefly teaching at Lewis & Clark College.

Joseph next discusses serving as a judge on the Oregon Court of Appeals from 1977 to 1992. He describes the other judges on the court, including Robert Y. Thornton, Herbert M. Schwab, Betty Roberts, Jason D. Lee and William L. Richardson. He talks about writing opinions, the types of cases he heard, and his staff. He also describes the procedures and operating practices of the court. He shares his observations on the changes in the Oregon Supreme Court since the creation of the Oregon Court of Appeals. He talks about serving as chief judge from 1981 to 1992. He closes the interview by discussing his service on the Board of Bar Examiners and his involvement in the creation of a uniform bar exam, as well as reforms that have been made to the Oregon court system.

Joseph, George Manley, 1930-2003

Oral history interview with Barrie J. Herbold [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Barrie J. Herbold was conducted by Lisa A. Kaner from September 19-26, 2001. In this interview, Herbold discusses her family background and early life, including moving around often due to her father’s Navy career. She speaks briefly about attending the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Oregon Law School, and about the sexism women college students faced. She talks about practicing law in Portland, Oregon, including her experience as the first woman trial attorney at the Dusendorf, Spears, Lubersky law firm. She describes starting a law firm with Dave Markowitz, the lawyers she hired, and cases she handled.

Herbold, Barrie J. (Barrie Jane), 1949-2001

Oral history interview with Barbara A. Mackenzie [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Barbara A. Mackenzie was conducted by Katy Barber at Mackenzie's home in Portland, Oregon, from September 27, 1999, to June 1, 2001. Barbara Mackenzie's son, Thomas R. Mackenzie, and Jan Dilg were also present during the sessions recorded in 2001. The interview was conducted in four sessions. The first part of session one was not recorded. In the first interview session, conducted on September 27, 1999, Mackenzie discusses working as a teacher in Oregon and California, including working with marginalized groups in the San Francisco Bay Area and opposition she faced. She also talks about her work with the Red Cross in Virginia. She speaks about her role in relocating members of the Warm Springs, Yakama, Umatilla, and Nez Perce tribes during the building of The Dalles Dam at Celilo Falls. She talks about her relationship with Chief Tommy Thompson and Flora Cushinway Thompson of the Wyam people and shares stories about the Wyam way of life. She also talks about her work with Navajo people near Palm Springs, California. In the second interview session, conducted on September 30, 1999, Mackenzie continues discussing her role in the relocation of members of the Warm Springs, Yakama, Umatilla, and Nez Perce tribes. She talks about her relationship with Flora Cushinway Thompson of the Wyam people, some of her advocacy on behalf of indigenous people, and where she felt the local authorities were neglecting indigenous people's needs. She also talks about Temmingway Moses, a Yakama woman who tended a cemetery near the Maryhill Museum in Washington; the attitudes of the population at The Dalles towards Native Americans; and her working relationship with the Bureau of Indian Affairs. She talks about Abe Sholoway, a Umatilla man who acted as interpreter; her efforts to get Native American marriages legally recognized; and attending the Pendleton Round-Up. She also talks about the processes of the relocation project and how she got involved. She shares her opinion about assimilation and the U.S. government's practice of tribal termination. She talks about her brother, Ralph Tudor, who served as undersecretary of the Interior under President Dwight D. Eisenhower and worked as an engineer on the Bay Bridge and Bay Area Rapid Transit in the San Francisco Bay Area. She also discusses some of her secretaries and revisits the topics of working as a teacher with marginalized groups in California and her work with the Red Cross in Virginia. She then talks about serving as executive for the Red Cross in Lincoln County, Oregon. In the third interview session, conducted on January 16, 2001, Mackenzie discusses her family background and her early life and education in Sutherlin, Oregon. She also talks about the career of her brother, Ralph Tudor. She discusses her education at St. Mary's Academy and at Lincoln High School in Portland, her relationship with her mother, and her first teaching job near Bend. She talks about her college experiences at Western College for Women (now known as the Western Campus of Miami University) and at the Oregon Normal School (now known as Western Oregon University). In the fourth interview session, conducted on June 1, 2001, Mackenzie discusses serving as executive for the Red Cross in Lincoln County, including organizing blood drives and working with veterans. She closes the interview by describing the town of Newport.

Mackenzie, Barbara A. (Barbara Amanda), 1905-2002

Oral history interview with Katherine Huff O'Neil Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Katherine Huff O’Neil was conducted by Patricia Wlodarczyk from November 3, 2000, to May 9, 2001. At O'Neil's request sections of sessions 2 and 3 of the interview were redacted by the U.S. District Court of Oregon Historical Society and the Oregon Historical Society. In addition to the interview, the collection includes a digital photograph album in PDF format containing photographs of O’Neil’s family, friends, and colleagues. All but two of the digital photographs used to create the album are also included in JPEG format.

In this interview, O’Neil discusses her family background and early life in New Orleans, Louisiana, including her early education, family vacations, and race relations in the South. She talks about studying political science at Stanford University, including her social life and her year studying abroad at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. She then briefly discusses her involvement with the Republican Party and working for the Young Republicans in Washington, D.C. She talks about studying law at Harvard University, including her experience as a female student, as well as meeting Mike O’Neil and their subsequent marriage. She talks about raising a family; relocating to Tigard, Oregon, in 1964; and working as a correspondent for the Community Press and the Oregonian newspaper. She discusses studying law at Northwestern School of Law at Lewis and Clark College, including her fellow law students.

O’Neil discusses practicing law in Portland. She talks about her first job with a law firm and sexist attitudes she faced as a woman lawyer, as well as racist attitudes she observed in her fellow lawyers. She talks about her fellow lawyers, judges she argued before, and some of the cases she worked on, particularly regarding admiralty law. She describes each of the law firms she worked for during her career. She also talks about trips to China in 1983 and 1985; her involvement in the formation of Oregon Women Lawyers; and serving as a pro-tem judge on the Multnomah County Circuit Court. She discusses her plans for retirement; her children and their careers and their families; and serving on the American Bar Association House of Delegates. She also speaks about her involvement with the Oregon Bar Association. She talks about changes in the law profession and her role in the investigation of U.S. Senator Bob Packwood. O’Neil closes the interview by discussing people who influenced her to pursue a career as a lawyer.

O'Neil, Katherine Huff, 1938-

Oral history interview with Asa Lewelling [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Asa Lewelling was conducted by Vinita Howard at Lewelling's home in Independence, Oregon, from November 6, 2000, to January 15, 2001. The interview was conducted as part of the Oregon Wine Archives Oral History Project, which collected interviews with notable figures in the wine-growing industry, including vintners, vineyard growers, community members, and workers active in the development of Oregon's wine industry. The interview was conducted in five sessions. In the first interview session, conducted on November 6, 2000, Lewelling discusses his family background, including his family's involvement in the establishment of Oregon's first nursery. He talks about his early life in Albany, Oregon, including time he spent on the family farm, his brothers and sisters, and doing farm work. In the second interview session, conducted on November 13, 2000, Lewelling continues discussing his early life in Albany, Oregon, including time he spent on the family farm and doing farm work. He describes his childhood home and talks about his father, L. Guy Lewelling, and his father's career as a lawyer and judge. He then briefly talks about his high school education; his experience at Albany College, now known as Lewis and Clark College; and his experience at the Willamette University College of Law. He speaks at length about his Air Force service in the Pacific Theater during World War II, including his flight training. In the third interview session, conducted on December 18, 2000, Lewelling continues discussing his Air Force service during World War II, and talks about his discharge and return to the United States in 1946. He discusses his return to the practice of law in Salem. He talks about his law partners; some of the cases he worked on, particularly those involving insurance claims; and some of the judges he argued before. He also briefly talks about his involvement with the Detroit Athletic Club. In the fourth interview session, conducted on January 8, 2001, Lewelling continues discussing cases he worked on, particularly those involving insurance claims, and judges he argued before. He talks about his service as president of the Oregon State Bar in 1973, how the practice of law has changed during his career, and the different fields of law practice. He then discusses purchasing land, and forming and operating Green Villa Farms. In the fifth and final interview session, conducted on January 15, 2001, he continues discussing Green Villa Farms, and talks about the sale of the farm in 1978. He also talks about his other real estate investments, his hobbies, and his ongoing interest in farming, particularly tomatoes. He describes his marriage history and talks about his children, their families, and their careers. He closes the interview by sharing his most outstanding memories.

Lewelling, Asa L. (Asa Lorenzo), 1915-2007

Oral history interviews with Norm Costa (Transcript)

Transcript. Norm Costa has lived in the Portland metro area since 1958. He transitioned from an engineering career to running his own beauty salon in Lake Oswego for several years during the 1960's. More recently, Costa has worked for decades as a gay rights activist, mostly working with local health departments on HIV prevention efforts. This interview describes many aspects of the gay experience in Portland over the course of those years, including his experience with politics and activism, personal experiences, gay-oriented clubs and businesses over the years, and the spread of the HIV virus in the early 1980's.

Costa, Norm

Oral history interview with Thomas Cooney [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Thomas Cooney was conducted by Lisa A. Kaner from October 17 to November 2, 2000. In this interview, Cooney discusses his family background and early life in Portland, Oregon, including his interest in drama and golf, and his memories of World War II. He then discusses attending the University of Portland, including being a cheerleader. He also briefly discusses his service in the Air Force during the Korean War. He relates several unfortunate incidents involving a pogo stick. He describes studying law at Willamette University, including his social life. He then talks about raising a family and coaching his son’s basketball team. He describes getting started in law practice in Portland, Oregon, at MacGuire, Shields, Morrison, and Bailey, including several of the cases he tried. He then speaks at length about representing the Oregon Medical Association while a partner at Cooney & Crew and several of the malpractice suits he tried. He also relates several anecdotes about his life and being a lawyer.

Cooney, Thomas E., 1931-2015

Oral history interview with Noreen Saltveit McGraw [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Noreen Saltveit McGraw was conducted by S. Diane Rynerson from May 24 to July 31, 2000. In this interview, McGraw discusses practicing law in Medford, Oregon, with her father, Edward Cantwell Kelly; about trying to find a job with a different law firm and the overt sexism she faced; and about working as an assistant U.S. attorney general in Portland, Oregon, under Robert Y. Thornton. She discusses some of the cases she tried, including on worker compensation. She then tells the story of defending the D’Autremont brothers in a train robbery case. She talks about practicing law while raising children; about arguing cases before U.S. District Court judges Gus Solomon and Robert Belloni; and about cases she argued in Spanish, particularly cases regarding migrant worker rights. She then talks about other women lawyers and the difficulty they had breaking into the legal profession, as well as women’s legal organizations in Oregon. She also talks about living in Mexico with her husband, Carl Saltveit, and children, as well as studying Spanish at Portland State University during the Vietnam War. She describes her involvement in Robert F. Kennedy’s campaign for the Democratic nomination for president in 1968. McGraw talks briefly about serving as a district judge pro tempore from 1972 to 1976. She discusses the increase in women entering the legal profession, particularly the number of women entering law school later in their lives; her pro-bono work for Legal Aid; and working as a criminal trial lawyer. She talks about many of the cases she worked on, including one regarding the Mount Hood Freeway. She then speaks about serving as city judge for Medford in the 1950s and appearing on the TV show “What’s My Line?” She closes the interview by discussing her experience in law school and a trip she took to Europe while awaiting her bar exam results.

McGraw, Noreen Saltveit, 1934-

Oral history interview with Helen F. Althaus [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Helen F. Althaus was conducted by Mary Ellen Page Farr in Ashland, Oregon, from March 13, 1999, to June 18, 2000. In this interview, Althaus discusses her family background, particularly her family’s history of civil rights activism, and her early life on a farm in Troutdale, Oregon, including her education, her interest in science, and her social life. She discusses her experiences as law clerk for Judge James Alger Fee, from 1947 to 1949. She talks about practicing law in Portland, Oregon, with the law firm King Miller, now known as Miller Nash, from 1953 to 1970, including some of the cases she argued and other women lawyers she worked with. She closes the interview by briefly discussing her work as deputy city attorney for Portland from 1949 to 1953.

Althaus, Helen F.

Oral history interview with Selma J. Denecke [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Selma J. Denecke was conducted by Elizabeth Meyer at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland, Oregon, from March 17 to June 23, 1999. In this interview, Denecke discusses her family background and early life in Portland, Oregon, including her early education and her memories of the Depression. She also talks about her interest in art and music and attending Scripps College in Claremont, California. She talks about working at the Portland Art Museum during World War II. She discusses meeting Arno H. Denecke and their subsequent marriage. Denecke describes Arno Denecke’s service in the U.S. Army in Europe during World War II, as well as their long-distance courtship. She talks about Arno Denecke’s career from professor at the University of Oregon Law School to chief justice of the Oregon Supreme Court. She discusses raising a family, as well as the prenatal and maternity care she received.

Denecke, Selma J. (Selma Jane), 1919-2009

Oral history interview with Dick Erath [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Dick Erath was conducted by Clark Hansen from March 4-12, 1999, at the Erath Winery in Dundee, Oregon. Along with the interview recordings, the collection includes a photograph of Erath taken by Hansen at the time of the interview. The interview was conducted as part of the Oregon Wine Archives Oral History Project, which collected interviews with notable figures in the wine-growing industry, including vintners, vineyard growers, community members, and workers active in the development of Oregon's wine industry. The interview was conducted in three sessions. In the first interview session, conducted on March 4, 1999, Erath discusses his family background, including his grandfather's experience in the German Army during World War I, and his parents' experience as German immigrants in the United States. He talks about his early life in Oakland, California, including his recreational activities. He then discusses his education at Oakland Junior College, in the Navy electronic technician training program, and at the University of California at Berkeley. He talks about working for the Shell Development Company while attending college. He also talks about his interest in photography and car racing. He then briefly discusses his marriage to Tina J. Butler in 1961. He describes his early interest in winemaking, taking enology classes at University of California at Davis, and the history of winemaking in California. He discusses his interest in Pinot noir; the similarities between the climates of Oregon and Burgundy, France; and how he chose the site for his winery in Dundee. He also talks about the history of winemaking in Oregon. He describes his early years as a winemaker, his grape-growing experiments, and his early successes and failures. He talks about ideal grape-growing conditions, his first vintage in 1972, and merchandising his wines in the early Oregon wine market. In the second interview session, conducted on March 9, 1999, Erath discusses his passion for Pinot noir; describes the variables that determine wine flavor, particularly the concept of terroir; and talks about some of the international wine tastings in which he has taken part. He discusses public perceptions of Oregon wines and how they have changed. He talks about the types of wine grapes that grow well in Oregon, the popularity of different varietals, and his hopes for the future of Oregon wine production. He discusses the logistics of wine distribution, the economics of winemaking, and collaboration among Oregon wineries. He talks about the Winegrowers Council of Oregon, the Oregon Winegrowers Association, and the Wine Advisory Board. He describes Oregon wine labeling laws, as well as other regulations for wineries, including land zoning laws. He talks about the development of his winery, Erath Vineyards, as well as the growth of the wine industry in Oregon and growing competition from other parts of the world. In the third and final interview session, conducted on March 12, 1999, Erath discusses some of the awards his Pinot noir has won. He reflects on his best vintages; talks about how the flavor of wine can vary from year to year; and defines some of the terms he uses in his wine labeling. He discusses his vineyard and winery staff, including migrant laborers. He also talks briefly about his children and their careers. He describes the growth cycle of grapevines, the winemaking process, and long-term maintenance of vineyards. He talks about the development of tasting rooms and Oregon's various wine and food festivals, the growth of the wine industry in the Pacific Northwest, and the increasing cost of wine production. He discusses the varieties of grapes he grows, as well as his grape-growing research and experiments; talks about the Oregon wine market and his place in it; and speaks about the health benefits of red wine. He closes the interview by describing his daily activities at the winery and his plans for the winery's future.

Erath, Dick

Oral history interview with Ralph M. Holman [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Ralph M. Holman was conducted by Clark Hansen at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland, Oregon, and at Holman’s home in Salem, Oregon, from February 19-27, 1998. In this interview, Holman discusses his family background and early life on a farm in Molalla, including his memories of the Depression, the effects of an undiagnosed case of polio, and his early education. He talks about attending the Northwestern College of Law, and his marriage to Louise Oesch. He discusses working for the state treasurer’s office after from graduating law school, as well as practicing law in Portland. He then describes at length his naval service during World War II. He talks about practicing law in Oregon City, judges he argued before, and his involvement in the Republican Party.Holman discusses serving as a judge on the Circuit Court of Oregon for Clackamas County from 1950 to 1966. He talks about judges he served with and some of the cases he heard. He then discusses serving as an Oregon Supreme Court justice from 1966 to 1980, including his campaign. He talks about his fellow justices, the difference between the Circuit Court and the Supreme Court, and the types of cases he heard. He also talks about his staff. He discusses changes in the law, sentencing guidelines, and cameras in the courtroom. He also describes the role of chief justice, as well as that of the Oregon Court of Appeals. He talks about the jury system, decisions of his that were reversed by the U.S. Supreme Court, and his judicial philosophy. He closes the interview by discussing his family life and retirement activities.

Holman, Ralph M. (Ralph Milo), 1914-2013

Oral history interviews with Nadyne Yoneko Dozono [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Nadyne Yoneko Dozono was conducted by Clark Hansen at Dozono’s home in Portland, Oregon, from January 23 to February 5, 1998. The interview was recorded as part of the Japanese American Oral History Project, which was conducted by the Oregon Historical Society to preserve the stories of Japanese Americans in Oregon. The interview was conducted in seven sessions. In the first interview session, conducted on January 23, 1998, Dozono discusses her family background, including her parents’ experiences immigrating to the United States in the early 20th century. She talks about Japanese culture, including flower arranging, marriage and wedding practices, and Japanese social structure. She speaks about her early life in Portland, Oregon, including the Portland Japantown, the neighborhoods and houses she lived in, and her home and family life. She also talks about the Japanese food that her mother cooked and sold. She closes the session by discussing her social life and her education. In the second interview session, conducted on January 26, 1998, Dozono continues discussing her early life in Portland, Oregon, including her social life, her education, and her siblings. She talks about her poor health in her youth, celebrating both Japanese and American holidays, and picking berries in the summers. She then speaks about being sent to Japan at age 16 for a Japanese education. She talks about her journey to Japan by ship in 1931, the family members she met and lived with in Japan, and learning the Japanese language and customs. She closes the session by discussing her experiences adjusting to life in Japan and describing the house she lived in. In the third interview session, conducted on January 29, 1998, Dozono continues discussing the family members she met and lived with in Japan, and her experiences adjusting to life there. She describes the house she lived in, her daily life, and learning Japanese customs. She talks about sewing traditional Japanese clothing, performing the Japanese tea ceremony, and the nuances of the Japanese language. She also describes the town she lived in, Seki Machi in Gifu prefecture, as well as Tokyo. She talks about Japanese festivals, plays, and holidays. She speaks at length about her arranged marriage to Asazo Dozono in 1934. She talks about Asazo Dozono’s career and about raising children, including her first child’s death during an epidemic. She closes the session by describing life in Japan during World War II and explains that she was not well-informed about world events at the time. In the fourth interview session, conducted on January 30, 1998, Dozono continues describing life in Japan during World War II. She also revisits the topic of her first child’s death during an epidemic. She talks about rationing and shortages, as well as being uninformed about U.S. government's incarceration of Japanese-Americans in concentration camps. She describes the information the Japanese government gave the citizenry about the war’s progress, the reaction of the people to Japan’s surrender, and the bombing of Okayama City, as well as the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. She talks about the aftermath of the war, including her husband losing his job due to his loyalty to the Japanese government, the American occupation, and revealing herself as an American citizen. She discusses her work as an interpreter for the American military; talks about the difficulty of explaining democracy to Japanese citizens; and shares stories about cultural misunderstandings between American troops and the Japanese population. She also talks about the changes that the U.S. made to Japan. She then discusses her work with the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission as an interpreter in Hiroshima; describes the effects of radiation sickness that she witnessed; and shares her opinion that the bombings were unnecessary. She closes the session by sharing a story about acting as an interpreter for Jean MacArthur, the spouse of U.S. General Douglas MacArthur). In the fifth interview session, conducted on February 2, 1998, Dozono discusses returning to Oregon with her daughter in 1953, then bringing her husband and sons later, and reconnecting with her siblings. She talks about readjusting to life in the U.S., working for the Japanese Ancestral Society, and her shock at realizing that racism was still a problem in the U.S. She also talks about her family’s experience during and after they were incarcerated by the U.S. government during World War II. She closes the session by discussing how her husband and children adjusted to life in the U.S.; her continued work as an interpreter; and her involvement in various community organizations particularly the Japanese Ancestral Society and the Veleda Nisei Women’s Club. In the sixth interview session, conducted on February 4, 1998, Dozono discusses the Japanese-American community in the Pacific Northwest, the community's reaction to incarceration by the U.S. government, and the movement for reparations. She talks more about her involvement in community organizations, particularly the Japanese Ancestral Society and the Veleda Nisei Women’s Club. She also talks about gender roles in Japanese culture and how they have changed over the 20th century. She speaks about her work speaking in schools about Japanese culture and the U.S. government's incarceration of Japanese-Americans. She talks about Japanese-American organizations, including the Oregon Nikkei Endowment, as well as the Japanese-American community. She also discusses several trips she took back to Japan. She closes the session by talking about her children, their families, and their careers. In the seventh and final interview session, conducted on February 5, 1998, Dozono continues discussing her children, their families, and their careers, while looking at photographs. She then talks about some of her American friends, including Maurine Neuberger; describes her involvement in various community organizations, particularly Ikoi no Kai; and closes the interview by discussing her hopes for the future.

Dozono, Nadyne Yoneko, 1915-2013

Oral history interview with Clay Myers [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Clay Myers was conducted by Ellen Nesbitt from October 9-10, 1997. In this interview, Myers discusses his terms as Oregon secretary of state from 1967 to 1977, as well as his term as Oregon treasurer from 1977 to 1984. He discusses his main accomplishments in those offices, including working with Tom McCall in the creation of the Willamette Greenway and SB 100, Oregon’s landmark land-use planning legislation, as well as his role in bringing Intel to Oregon. Myers then discusses his involvement in the Episcopal Church, including the changes in the church since he first joined as a teenager in the 1940s, particularly on the subjects of the inclusion of women clergy in 1976, birth control, and views on homosexuality. He speaks at length about the evolution of his own views on LGBTQ people.

Myers, Clay, 1927-2004

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