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Oral history interview with John F. Kilkenny [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with John F. Kilkenny was conducted by Rick Harmon in Portland, Oregon, from June 12 to October 3, 1984. The original audio of the recording is incomplete due to irretrievable damage to Tape 14, Side 2. Tape 17 is a re-enactment of that audio. The re-enactment was created by Rick Harmon and Terence O'Donnell after the damage to the original tape was discovered. It was based upon a transcript created before the damage occurred, which no longer exists. The accuracy of the re-enactment cannot be verified. In this interview, Kilkenny discusses his family background and early life on a sheep farm in Heppner, Oregon, and his education at Columbia Preparatory, a boarding school in Portland. He also briefly discusses his memories of World War I. He then talks about attending Notre Dame University in Indiana, including playing football under Knute Rockne; his social life; and preparing for the Oregon Bar by taking prep courses at Northwestern College of Law. He discusses his early law career in Pendleton and notable cases he worked on, including bankruptcy and Prohibition cases; his political views and Republican affiliation; and the effects of the Depression. He talks about serving as city attorney for Pendleton from 1930 to 1952. He talks briefly about how World War II affected his law practice, in the number and type of cases the firm handled. Also discussed is his involvement with the Oregon State Bar. Kilkenny discusses his 1959 appointment to the U.S. District Court of Oregon. He briefly describes judges he worked with, including Hall Lusk and Gus Solomon. He discusses cases involving admiralty law, the first amendment, labor unions, and criminal law. He then discusses his 1969 appointment to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. He discusses cases involving the draft, procedures of the court, and efforts to split the Ninth Circuit. He then discusses how his sentencing style has changed over time, new precedents set by recent courts, and his thoughts on the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal. He discusses his involvement in the preservation of the Pioneer Courthouse in Portland. He closes the interview by talking about his recent activities and family life.

Kilkenny, John F.

Oral history interview with Gus J. Solomon [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Gus J. Solomon was conducted by Rick Harmon at the U.S. District Courthouse in Portland, Oregon, from July 23 to October 18, 1984. In this interview, Solomon discusses his family background and early life in Portland, including his memories of World War I, his Jewish upbringing, his father’s store, and his education. He then discusses attending Reed College, his interest in history, and his subsequent transfer to the University of Chicago. He discusses studying law at Columbia University, including his social life in New York, then transferring to Stanford University, including his developing political beliefs. He also discusses his family’s financial difficulties during this time period. He talks about the difficulty in finding a job in a law office during the Depression, and about some of the cases he worked on, particularly cases involving civil rights. He also talks about his involvement with the Democratic Party, the Oregon Commonwealth Foundation, and the American Civil Liberties Union. He describes his work toward establishing a legal aid program in Oregon, his work on public power, and his efforts getting jobs for young lawyers, particularly those from underrepresented groups. He describes being rejected for military service in World War II and cases he worked on related to internment of Japanese-Americans, particularly after the war.Solomon discusses serving as a judge for the U.S. District Court of Oregon. He talks about his election to the bench and the opposition he faced; the adjustment from lawyer to judge; and his relationship with his fellow judges. He describes in detail his techniques for speeding up the judicial process, with some case examples. He then discusses his activities as a senior judge, beginning in 1971, which he describes as being largely the same as when he was an active judge. He talks about hearing cases in other districts, particularly in Southern California; the McCarthy era; and cases with political implications, particularly cases regarding the draft. He talks about serving as chief judge from 1959 to 1971, and the changes he made to rules and procedures of the court. He describes some of the law clerks he’s had over his career, including Jerome Kohlberg, Jr. He speaks briefly about his early opposition to clubs with discriminatory policies. Solomon provides advice to lawyers on how to win cases, and discusses lawyers he has worked with. He talks about sentencing, judicial activism, and interpreting law.Solomon closes the interview by talking about his personal life and activities. He discusses the many organizations he has belonged to, including the Reed College Alumni Association and Amnesty International. He also talks about organizations he regularly donates to, including the Jewish Federation. He describes his family life and the activities of his children and grandchildren.

Solomon, Gus J. (Gus Jerome), 1906-1987

Oral history interview with Alfred T. Goodwin [Index]

Index. This oral history interview with Alfred T. Goodwin was conducted by Rick Harmon at the Pioneer Courthouse in Portland, Oregon, from May 10, 1985, to September 3, 1986. The audio for this interview is incomplete; Tape 22 was discovered to be blank in 2020, but its content is represented in both an incomplete transcript and a completed index. In this interview, Goodwin discusses his family background and early life in Bellingham, Washington, and Portland and Prineville, Oregon, including his early education, his memories of the Depression, and life on a farm. He talks about studying journalism at the University of Oregon, including his social life. He speaks at length about his Army service in Europe during World War II, including his experiences in combat and freeing prisoners. He also talks about his marriages and family life. He discusses returning to the University of Oregon to study law, and how his background in journalism influenced his decision-making as a judge. He speaks at length about working for the Eugene Register-Guard newspaper, as well as his support for and later disillusionment with U.S. Senator Wayne Morse. Goodwin discusses practicing law in Eugene. He talks about cases he argued, including as a court-appointed lawyer. He also talks about his involvement in the Republican Party, including serving as a precinct committee member. He discusses serving as a judge on the Lane County Circuit Court, including his appointment and later re-election, cases he heard, and his decision-making process. He then discusses serving on the Oregon Supreme Court, including his appointment and later re-election, his fellow justices, and some of the cases they heard. He talks about opinions he wrote, as well as his involvement in the effort to revise the Oregon state constitution in the 1960s. He discusses the changes in laws regarding the criminal code and civil rights, and how that affected the decisions of the Oregon Supreme Court. He also discusses his views on the Vietnam War, the criminalization of drug use, and the civil rights movement of the 1960s. He discusses serving as a judge on the U.S. District Court, including his appointment and confirmation, his fellow judges, and some of the cases he heard. He discusses serving as a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, including his appointment and confirmation; cases he heard, particularly concerning immigration and anti-trust law; and his opinion on Roe v. Wade. He also discusses the role of the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, his fellow judges, and his involvement with the American Bar Association. He talks about continuing education opportunities for members of the judiciary; his children, their careers, and their families; and his involvement with the Presbyterian Church. He closes the interview by discussing his move to California.

Goodwin, Alfred T. (Alfred Theodore), 1923-

Oral history interview with Otto Skopil [Index]

Index. This oral history interview with Otto Skopil was conducted by Rick Harmon and Jim Strassmaier in Skopil’s chambers at the Pioneer Courthouse in Portland, Oregon, from August 19, 1985, to November 27, 1989. The audio for this interview is incomplete; Tape 26 was discovered to be blank in 2020, but its contents are reflected in an incomplete transcript and in an index. In the interview, Skopil discusses his family background and early life in Salem, Oregon, including his time at Salem High School and the effect of the Depression and the New Deal on the Salem area. Skopil talks about attending Willamette University in great detail. He discusses his World War II experience in the Navy from 1942 to 1945, between earning his bachelor’s degree in economics and returning to earn his bachelor of law. Skopil describes practicing law in Salem for 26 years, from 1946 to 1972, including partnering with his uncle, Ralph Skopil, and later with Bruce Williams. He discusses some of the cases he argued, particularly his only U.S. Supreme Court case, which involved State Farm Insurance. He then briefly discusses his personal life, including his two marriages, first to June Johnson, then to Jan Lundy, and his involvement in various religious and civic organizations, including the Board of Governors for the Oregon Bar. He also discusses his involvement with the Republican Party and his opposition to both the Korean and Vietnam wars, as well as how the draft affected his son, Ric Skopil. He talks about serving as a judge for the U.S. Circuit Court of Oregon, including his confirmation; the procedures of the court; sentencing; and the development of the magistrate system. He also discusses some of the cases he presided over on topics including the environment, white-collar crime, and securities. He talks at length about the case of Chuck Armsbury. He also discusses working with his fellow judges, particularly Gus Solomon and Robert Belloni, as well as his relationships with Mark Hatfield and Griffin Bell. Skopil then describes his time as a judge for the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, including the relationship between that court and Congress; the increase of litigation during the 1980s; and the public perception of the Ninth. He discusses some of the cases that came before the court on topics including mental health, capital punishment, timber, and drugs. He also talks about some of his fellow judges, particularly Ted Goodwin and James Browning. Skopil closes the interview by describing the importance of law clerks; discussing sentencing guidelines; and talking about his family life.

Skopil, Otto R. (Otto Richard), 1919-

Oral history interview with Sidney Lezak [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Sidney Lezak was conducted by Jack G. Collins from August 16, 1988, to June 6, 1990. In this interview, Lezak discusses his family background and early life in Chicago, Illinois. He speaks briefly about beginning his college studies before enlisting in the U.S. Air Force in 1942. He describes flying missions in Europe during World War II. He then briefly talks about completing his studies at the University of Chicago; his marriage to Muriel Deutsch; and relocating to Oregon.

Lezak discusses practicing law in Portland, Oregon. He talks about some of the cases he worked on, particularly regarding labor law and civil rights. He also talks about judges he argued before, including Gus Solomon. He discusses his involvement with the Democratic Party of Oregon, including serving as legal counsel. He then talks about his appointment as U.S. attorney for Oregon and his service in that role from 1961 to 1982. He discusses his work toward making the U.S. attorney’s office non-partisan; working with the FBI and local law enforcement; and some of the cases he prosecuted, including mail fraud. He talks about civil unrest during the Vietnam War, and about prosecuting protestors and conscientious objectors. He talks about judges on the U.S. District Court that he argued before, including William East, Gus Solomon, and John Kilkenny. He also speaks about his staff and law clerks, particularly Kristen Olson, who later became U.S. attorney. He discusses the American Indian Movement in Oregon, including relations with the Warm Springs tribe. Lezak discusses his resignation in 1982 in response to the policies of the Reagan administration. He closes the interview by talking about his activities since leaving office, including his career as a mediator.

Lezak, Sidney I., 1924-2006

Oral history interview with Robert C. Belloni [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Robert C. Belloni was conducted by Jim Strassmaier from September 19, 1988, to July 28, 1989. In this interview, Belloni discusses his family background and early life in Coos County, Oregon, including his education. He talks about studying pre-med at the University of Oregon and his service as a U.S. Army medical officer in the Pacific Theater during World War II. He describes landing in Japan just as it surrendered. He talks about returning to civilian life and deciding to go to law school, attending the University of Oregon, and his friendship with Ted Goodwin. He discusses his early law career in Coos County. He also talks about his early political career, holding the offices of chair of the Democratic Central Committee for Coos County and mayor of Myrtle Point. He also talks about his relationship with Wayne Morse. He discusses serving as a Circuit Court judge in Southern Oregon from 1957 to 1967, particularly presiding over juvenile cases. He then discusses serving on the U.S. District Court of Oregon from 1967 to the time of the interview, including the politics of his appointment. He discusses his fellow District Court judges, including Gus Solomon, John Kilkenney, and Otto Skopil. He also talks about the variety of cases that came before him, including on land fraud, asbestos, consumer protections, and several cases involving Native American rights. He discusses his law clerks, judicial process, and ethics. Belloni discusses serving as chief judge on the District Court from 1971 to 1976, and the duties and responsibilities of that position, including his work in establishing the magistrate system and the sentencing council. He closes the interview by discussing changes in the court systems over the 20th century, his experience as a senior judge, and his personal life.

Belloni, Robert C. (Robert Clinton), 1919-1999

Oral history interview with Orlando Hollis [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Orlando Hollis in Hollis’s office in Eugene, Oregon, was conducted by Jim Strassmaier from January 27 to July 21, 1989. Audio is incomplete; Tape 4 was discovered to be blank in 2015. In this interview, Hollis discusses his family background and early life in Eugene, Oregon, including his father’s career with Southern Pacific Railroad, his childhood activities, and his memories of World War I. He also talks about his early education and about working at the First National Bank of Eugene while studying law at the University of Oregon. He also describes several prominent community members in Eugene. He discusses studying law at the University of Oregon, particularly his professors. He also talks about his friendship with University of Oregon Law School Dean, and later U.S. Senator, Wayne Morse.Hollis discusses teaching at the University of Oregon Law School beginning in 1931, and serving as dean from 1945 to 1967. He talks about the administration of the university; how the Depression affected the law school; and students of his who went on to gain prominence, including Judge Ted Goodwin. He also talks about serving on the Eugene Water Board in the 1930s; judicial procedure; and changes in the law that affected how he taught. He also talks about his friendship with Judge James Alger Fee. Hollis discusses leading the Governor’s Commission on Judicial Reform from 1971 to 1975, including legislators he worked with. He talks about constitutional law; the role of the judiciary; and appointments to the courts made by governors Mark Hatfield and Tom McCall. He describes his home and social life, particularly a trip to Moscow, Russia, in 1936. He closes the interview by discussing his activities since retiring as dean of the University of Oregon Law School in 1967.

Hollis, Orlando John, 1904-2000

Oral history interview with Cleveland C. Cory [Sound Recording 02]

Tape 1, Side 2. The first part of this oral history interview with Cleveland Cory was conducted by George Fraser at Cory's home on the Willamette River on June 19, 1990. In this interview, Cory discusses his family background and early life in Englewood, New Jersey. He then discusses his college experience, including attending Yale Law School from 1940 to 1943. He then talks about working for the Davis and Polk law firm in New York, including representing Prince Edward, the Duke of Windsor, as well as various railroads. He then discusses relocating to Oregon in 1949 and his reasons for doing so, including seeking an improved quality of life and the difficulty of becoming a partner at a New York law firm. He talks about his career at a law firm in Portland, now known as Stoel Rives, including many of the cases he tried. He also briefly discusses his renowned memory for cases. The second part of the interview was recorded at the Crestview Convalescent Home in Portland, Oregon, where Cory was recovering from a broken shoulder. No date is given. The sound quality is very poor. Cory and Fraser further discuss Cory's early employment in Portland.

Cory, Cleveland C. (Cleveland Cady), 1918-1991

Oral history interview with Cleveland C. Cory [Sound Recording 03]

Tape 2, Side 1. The first part of this oral history interview with Cleveland Cory was conducted by George Fraser at Cory's home on the Willamette River on June 19, 1990. In this interview, Cory discusses his family background and early life in Englewood, New Jersey. He then discusses his college experience, including attending Yale Law School from 1940 to 1943. He then talks about working for the Davis and Polk law firm in New York, including representing Prince Edward, the Duke of Windsor, as well as various railroads. He then discusses relocating to Oregon in 1949 and his reasons for doing so, including seeking an improved quality of life and the difficulty of becoming a partner at a New York law firm. He talks about his career at a law firm in Portland, now known as Stoel Rives, including many of the cases he tried. He also briefly discusses his renowned memory for cases. The second part of the interview was recorded at the Crestview Convalescent Home in Portland, Oregon, where Cory was recovering from a broken shoulder. No date is given. The sound quality is very poor. Cory and Fraser further discuss Cory's early employment in Portland.

Cory, Cleveland C. (Cleveland Cady), 1918-1991

Oral history interview with Cleveland C. Cory [Sound Recording 01]

Tape 1, Side 1. The first part of this oral history interview with Cleveland Cory was conducted by George Fraser at Cory's home on the Willamette River on June 19, 1990. In this interview, Cory discusses his family background and early life in Englewood, New Jersey. He then discusses his college experience, including attending Yale Law School from 1940 to 1943. He then talks about working for the Davis and Polk law firm in New York, including representing Prince Edward, the Duke of Windsor, as well as various railroads. He then discusses relocating to Oregon in 1949 and his reasons for doing so, including seeking an improved quality of life and the difficulty of becoming a partner at a New York law firm. He talks about his career at a law firm in Portland, now known as Stoel Rives, including many of the cases he tried. He also briefly discusses his renowned memory for cases. The second part of the interview was recorded at the Crestview Convalescent Home in Portland, Oregon, where Cory was recovering from a broken shoulder. No date is given. The sound quality is very poor. Cory and Fraser further discuss Cory's early employment in Portland.

Cory, Cleveland C. (Cleveland Cady), 1918-1991

Oral history interview with Randall B. Kester [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Randall B. Kester was conducted by Tom B. Stoel, Jr. at Kester’s office in Portland, Oregon, from April 2-14, 1992. Throughout the interview, supplemental items are referenced. They are part of the related U.S. District Court of Oregon Historical Society Collection, Coll 560.In this interview, Kester discusses his family background and early life in Bloomington, Wisconsin, and in Ontario, Oregon. He talks about attending Willamette University during the Depression, including his social life, some of his professors, and his involvement in student government. He then talks about attending the Columbia University Law School in New York, including some of his classes and professors. He discusses returning to Oregon to practice law in Portland, including taking the Oregon bar exam. He talks about his marriage to Rachael Woodhouse and describes the law firm of Maguire, Shields & Morrison. He talks about arguing cases in the U.S. District Court of Oregon, particularly before Judge James Alger Fee. He also describes some of the cases he handled.While Kester does not discuss his time as a justice on the Oregon Supreme Court from 1957 to 1958, an incomplete transcript of the interview contains a brief description of that period of his life.Kester discusses serving as general solicitor for the Union Pacific Railroad from 1958 to 1979. He talks about some of the cases he handled for the company, including the acquisition of the Portland Traction Company. He also discusses other cases he handled, including his involvement in Yasui v. United States. He also talks about judges he argued before, including Hall Lusk and Claude McColloch. He talks about his involvement with various Oregon Bar committees and other civic organizations. He also talks about his involvement with the Mazamas and his other outdoor activities. He closes the interview by speaking again about his work as general solicitor for Union Pacific.

Kester, Randall B., 1916-2012

Oral history interview with Kernan H. Bagley [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Kernan H. Bagley was conducted by Brent E. Turvey from February 9 to March 17, 1993. In this interview, Bagley discusses his family background and early life on a farm near Portland, Oregon, particularly the experience of growing up black in a predominantly white area, as well as his early education and religious upbringing. He talks about the importance of role models for young African Americans, citing Multnomah County sheriff Don E. Clark as one of his own. He speaks at length about family and social values. He talks briefly about his college education; meeting his wife, Shirlene Peacher, and starting a family; and getting started in his law enforcement career. He discusses serving as a deputy Multnomah County sheriff and the discrimination he faced there. He then talks about serving as a U.S. marshal, the duties of the marshals, and the political process of his appointment to deputy U.S. marshal for the District of Oregon. He describes the popular perception of the U.S. marshals versus the reality; the process of prisoner transportation; and his thoughts on police brutality and the recent Rodney King video. He closes the interview by discussing the prison system, including its funding and effectiveness at rehabilitation.

Bagley, Kernan H., 1936-

Oral history interview with Hattie Bratzel Kremen [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Hattie Bratzel Kremen was conducted by Susan C. Glen from April 22 to June 10, 1995. In this interview, Bratzel Kremen discusses her family background and early life in Mulino, Gresham, Silverton and Salem, Oregon, including facing anti-German sentiment during World War I, working on the family orchard, and her education. She discusses the limited career opportunities open to women, her decision to pursue work as a secretary in law offices, and working as a court reporter. She then talks about attending Northwestern College of Law (which later became a part of Lewis and Clark College) at age 37, including her professors, her women classmates, and working full time as a court reporter while studying. She also describes serving as a court reporter for Judge James T. Brown at the Nuremberg Trials in 1947, as well as her travels around post-war Europe. She talks about her first race for the office of Marion County district attorney in 1951. She discusses practicing law in Salem, including representing mothers in custody cases. She then discusses her service as Marion County district attorney from 1956 to 1964, including cases she prosecuted and the long hours she kept. She briefly talks about her marriage to Leonard Kremen, as well as his family background and early life. She then discusses her return to private practice in 1964 and focusing largely on probate law. She closes the interview by talking about her travels.

Kremen, Hattie Bratzel, 1908-1996

Oral history interview with Helen F. Althaus [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Helen F. Althaus was conducted by Mary Ellen Page Farr in Ashland, Oregon, from March 13, 1999, to June 18, 2000. In this interview, Althaus discusses her family background, particularly her family’s history of civil rights activism, and her early life on a farm in Troutdale, Oregon, including her education, her interest in science, and her social life. She discusses her experiences as law clerk for Judge James Alger Fee, from 1947 to 1949. She talks about practicing law in Portland, Oregon, with the law firm King Miller, now known as Miller Nash, from 1953 to 1970, including some of the cases she argued and other women lawyers she worked with. She closes the interview by briefly discussing her work as deputy city attorney for Portland from 1949 to 1953.

Althaus, Helen F.

Oral history interview with Selma J. Denecke [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Selma J. Denecke was conducted by Elizabeth Meyer at the Oregon Historical Society in Portland, Oregon, from March 17 to June 23, 1999. In this interview, Denecke discusses her family background and early life in Portland, Oregon, including her early education and her memories of the Depression. She also talks about her interest in art and music and attending Scripps College in Claremont, California. She talks about working at the Portland Art Museum during World War II. She discusses meeting Arno H. Denecke and their subsequent marriage. Denecke describes Arno Denecke’s service in the U.S. Army in Europe during World War II, as well as their long-distance courtship. She talks about Arno Denecke’s career from professor at the University of Oregon Law School to chief justice of the Oregon Supreme Court. She discusses raising a family, as well as the prenatal and maternity care she received.

Denecke, Selma J. (Selma Jane), 1919-2009

Oral history interview with Noreen Saltveit McGraw [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Noreen Saltveit McGraw was conducted by S. Diane Rynerson from May 24 to July 31, 2000. In this interview, McGraw discusses practicing law in Medford, Oregon, with her father, Edward Cantwell Kelly; about trying to find a job with a different law firm and the overt sexism she faced; and about working as an assistant U.S. attorney general in Portland, Oregon, under Robert Y. Thornton. She discusses some of the cases she tried, including on worker compensation. She then tells the story of defending the D’Autremont brothers in a train robbery case. She talks about practicing law while raising children; about arguing cases before U.S. District Court judges Gus Solomon and Robert Belloni; and about cases she argued in Spanish, particularly cases regarding migrant worker rights. She then talks about other women lawyers and the difficulty they had breaking into the legal profession, as well as women’s legal organizations in Oregon. She also talks about living in Mexico with her husband, Carl Saltveit, and children, as well as studying Spanish at Portland State University during the Vietnam War. She describes her involvement in Robert F. Kennedy’s campaign for the Democratic nomination for president in 1968. McGraw talks briefly about serving as a district judge pro tempore from 1972 to 1976. She discusses the increase in women entering the legal profession, particularly the number of women entering law school later in their lives; her pro-bono work for Legal Aid; and working as a criminal trial lawyer. She talks about many of the cases she worked on, including one regarding the Mount Hood Freeway. She then speaks about serving as city judge for Medford in the 1950s and appearing on the TV show “What’s My Line?” She closes the interview by discussing her experience in law school and a trip she took to Europe while awaiting her bar exam results.

McGraw, Noreen Saltveit, 1934-

Oral history interview with Thomas Cooney [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Thomas Cooney was conducted by Lisa A. Kaner from October 17 to November 2, 2000. In this interview, Cooney discusses his family background and early life in Portland, Oregon, including his interest in drama and golf, and his memories of World War II. He then discusses attending the University of Portland, including being a cheerleader. He also briefly discusses his service in the Air Force during the Korean War. He relates several unfortunate incidents involving a pogo stick. He describes studying law at Willamette University, including his social life. He then talks about raising a family and coaching his son’s basketball team. He describes getting started in law practice in Portland, Oregon, at MacGuire, Shields, Morrison, and Bailey, including several of the cases he tried. He then speaks at length about representing the Oregon Medical Association while a partner at Cooney & Crew and several of the malpractice suits he tried. He also relates several anecdotes about his life and being a lawyer.

Cooney, Thomas E., 1931-2015

Oral history interview with Katherine Huff O'Neil Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Katherine Huff O’Neil was conducted by Patricia Wlodarczyk from November 3, 2000, to May 9, 2001. At O'Neil's request sections of sessions 2 and 3 of the interview were redacted by the U.S. District Court of Oregon Historical Society and the Oregon Historical Society. In addition to the interview, the collection includes a digital photograph album in PDF format containing photographs of O’Neil’s family, friends, and colleagues. All but two of the digital photographs used to create the album are also included in JPEG format.

In this interview, O’Neil discusses her family background and early life in New Orleans, Louisiana, including her early education, family vacations, and race relations in the South. She talks about studying political science at Stanford University, including her social life and her year studying abroad at the University of Geneva in Switzerland. She then briefly discusses her involvement with the Republican Party and working for the Young Republicans in Washington, D.C. She talks about studying law at Harvard University, including her experience as a female student, as well as meeting Mike O’Neil and their subsequent marriage. She talks about raising a family; relocating to Tigard, Oregon, in 1964; and working as a correspondent for the Community Press and the Oregonian newspaper. She discusses studying law at Northwestern School of Law at Lewis and Clark College, including her fellow law students.

O’Neil discusses practicing law in Portland. She talks about her first job with a law firm and sexist attitudes she faced as a woman lawyer, as well as racist attitudes she observed in her fellow lawyers. She talks about her fellow lawyers, judges she argued before, and some of the cases she worked on, particularly regarding admiralty law. She describes each of the law firms she worked for during her career. She also talks about trips to China in 1983 and 1985; her involvement in the formation of Oregon Women Lawyers; and serving as a pro-tem judge on the Multnomah County Circuit Court. She discusses her plans for retirement; her children and their careers and their families; and serving on the American Bar Association House of Delegates. She also speaks about her involvement with the Oregon Bar Association. She talks about changes in the law profession and her role in the investigation of U.S. Senator Bob Packwood. O’Neil closes the interview by discussing people who influenced her to pursue a career as a lawyer.

O'Neil, Katherine Huff, 1938-

Oral history interview with George M. Joseph [Index]

Index. This oral history interview with George M. Joseph was conducted by Michael O’Rourke at Joseph’s home in Portland, Oregon, from August 7 to November 7, 2001, and on February 25, 2002. The portion of the interview recorded on February 25, 2002, was conducted at the Friendship Health Center in Portland, where Joseph was recovering from a broken leg. The first tape of this 27-tape interview features a brief overview of Joseph’s entire life and career. Beginning from Tape 2 of this interview, Joseph discusses his family background and early life in Boise, Idaho, including a store his mother ran in Boise, and the early death of his father from tuberculosis of the bone. He also describes a 1938 visit from Franklin D. Roosevelt to Boise; his awareness of the Depression; the Mormon community in Boise; and his family’s own Catholicism. He also speaks about contracting polio as a child and the lifelong physical issues it caused, as well as his memories of the internment of Japanese-Americans, and other events, during World War II. He then discusses his education, including attending Menlo School in Atherton, California, and Boise Junior College (now Boise State University) in Boise, Idaho; hitchhiking home; and his social life. He also discusses attending the University of San Francisco and Reed College in Portland, Oregon, including his social life and the development of his political views. He speaks at length about a recurrence of polio during his senior year at Reed and the extensive treatment and physical therapy he undertook as a result. He then talks about studying law at the University of Chicago, including his divorce from his first wife, Elizabeth Kalisher, and subsequent marriage to Elizabeth Starr, as well as coming to the realization that he did not want to be a lawyer. He describes Elizabeth Starr’s family background and early life, as well as their wedding and honeymoon. He also talks about his involvement with the Democratic Party, particularly acting as an alternate delegate for the 1956 Democratic National Convention.

Joseph discusses his return to Oregon in 1955 and his early legal career as a law clerk for Oregon Supreme Court Justice George Rossman. He briefly describes the judges on the Oregon Supreme Court at that time, as well as some of the cases Rossman presided over. He discusses teaching law at many different universities outside Oregon, including Ohio Northern University. He then describes working in the Multnomah County district attorney’s office under George Van Hoomisen, as well as his ambitions of becoming a judge. He talks about several cases he prosecuted and making a name for himself as a criminal appellate prosecutor; the focus of the district attorney’s office on vice cases, including an undercover operation that Joseph compromised; and civil rights cases he was involved with, particularly involving the people with mental illnesses. He talks about the creation of the Oregon Court of Appeals and the subsequent increase in the workload of the district attorney’s office; Jacob B. Tanzer and other county-level judges; and his relationship with Multnomah County sheriff, and later Multnomah County commissioner, Don E. Clark. He then talks about his brief career as a lawyer in various private law firms in Portland, his involvement in the passage of the Multnomah County Home Rule Charter, and his ongoing attempts to become a judge. He speaks at length about Multnomah County politics and Don Clark’s accomplishments as county commissioner. He talks about serving as Multnomah County counsel, including working on public power and city-county consolidation. He also discusses briefly teaching at Lewis & Clark College.

Joseph next discusses serving as a judge on the Oregon Court of Appeals from 1977 to 1992. He describes the other judges on the court, including Robert Y. Thornton, Herbert M. Schwab, Betty Roberts, Jason D. Lee and William L. Richardson. He talks about writing opinions, the types of cases he heard, and his staff. He also describes the procedures and operating practices of the court. He shares his observations on the changes in the Oregon Supreme Court since the creation of the Oregon Court of Appeals. He talks about serving as chief judge from 1981 to 1992. He closes the interview by discussing his service on the Board of Bar Examiners and his involvement in the creation of a uniform bar exam, as well as reforms that have been made to the Oregon court system.

Joseph, George Manley, 1930-2003

Oral history interview with Barrie J. Herbold [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Barrie J. Herbold was conducted by Lisa A. Kaner from September 19-26, 2001. In this interview, Herbold discusses her family background and early life, including moving around often due to her father’s Navy career. She speaks briefly about attending the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Oregon Law School, and about the sexism women college students faced. She talks about practicing law in Portland, Oregon, including her experience as the first woman trial attorney at the Dusendorf, Spears, Lubersky law firm. She describes starting a law firm with Dave Markowitz, the lawyers she hired, and cases she handled.

Herbold, Barrie J. (Barrie Jane), 1949-2001

Oral history interview with Helen J. Frye [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Helen J. Frye was conducted by Clark Hansen at the Mark O. Hatfield Federal Courthouse in Portland, Oregon, from January 9 to May 20, 2002. In this interview, Frye discusses her family background and early life in Klamath Falls, Oregon. She talks about her mother and brother contracting tuberculosis; how she was raised by her grandparents; and her early education. She then discusses attending the University of Oregon, including her professors; her involvement in student government and politics in general; and meeting Bill Frye and their subsequent marriage. She talks about teaching high school in Eugene, raising a family, and returning to the University of Oregon to study law.Frye briefly discusses practicing law in Eugene and specializing in adoption. She talks about serving as a judge on the Lane County Circuit Court, including her appointment by Governor Tom McCall. She also discusses serving as a judge on the U.S. District Court, including her appointment by President Jimmy Carter. She talks about the cases she heard; judges she served with; and court procedure. She discusses sentencing; the role of dissent in lower courts; and the role of juries. She closes the interview by discussing her legal philosophy and how her opinions have evolved over the years.

Frye, Helen J. (Helen Jackson), 1930-

Oral history interview with Roosevelt Robinson [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Roosevelt Robinson was conducted by Clark Hansen at Robinson's home in Portland, Oregon, from February 12 to March 10, 2004. In this interview, Robsinson discusses his family background and early life in Georgia; he describes life as a black person in the segregated South, his early education, and growing up on a farm. He talks about attending Southwestern Christian College in Texas, and moving to Portland, Oregon, after graduation. He describes working for National Biscuit Company (now known as Nabisco Inc.), racism he faced in Oregon, and his marriage to and later divorce from Beverlee Foreman. He then talks about giving up plans to become a minister and instead attending Northwestern School of Law at Lewis & Clark College. He also talks about taking the Oregon Bar exam.Robinson discusses starting his private law practice in Portland. He talks about arguing cases before Judge Gus Solomon and some of the cases he handled. He then discusses working as a Multnomah County deputy district attorney. He talks about cases he prosecuted (and a few he chose not to prosecute), and arguing against public defenders. He also discusses systemic racism in the criminal justice system. He discusses serving on the Oregon Parole Board, including some of the decisions he made. He discusses serving as a judge on the Multnomah County Circuit Court, including his appointment in 1990. He also talks about his involvement with the Oregon Bar Association, as well as numerous other organizations. He discusses cases he heard on the Circuit Court, judicial procedure, and programs to reduce recidivism. He discusses his involvement with the community court program and the drug diversion court program. He closes the interview by talking about his children, their families, and their careers; his health; and the Roosevelt Robinson scholarship fund.

Robinson, Roosevelt, 1941-2004

Oral history interview with Edward Leavy [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Edward Leavy was conducted by Clark Hansen in Leavy’s chambers at the U.S. District Courthouse (known as the Mark O. Hatfield U.S. Courthouse) in Portland, Oregon, from March 2 to April 13, 2004. The portion of the interview conducted on March 30, 2004 (Tapes 10 through 12) appears to have been simultaneously recorded on audiocassette and video. In the audio recording, the parties make reference to the video recording, which is not included in this collection.

In this interview, Leavy discusses his family background and early life on a hops farm in Butteville, Oregon, including his memories of the Depression and his education. He talks about attending the University of Portland and studying at Notre Dame Law School, including his reasons for attending Catholic schools. He also speaks about how his faith informs his morality and judicial decisions, particularly regarding the Fifth Amendment. He discusses serving as a deputy district attorney for Lane County and some of the cases he prosecuted. He reflects at length upon the byzantine workings of the justice system, its strengths and weaknesses, and a judge’s role within it.

Leavy discusses his election to the positions of Lane County District Court judge and Circuit Court judge, as well as the elections of other judges in Oregon. He talks about some of the cases he heard and some decisions of his that were reversed. He speaks at length about many of the judges he knew, including Ted Goodwin and Otto Skopil. He discusses the differences between state and federal courts. Leavy describes the magistrate system during the years he was a U.S. Magistrate for the U.S. District Court of Oregon. He then speaks at length about mediating cases and reaching settlements. He discusses some controversial issues he’s had to rule on, including drug use, the death penalty, and abortion. He also speaks briefly about his family life.

Leavy discusses serving as a judge on the U.S. Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, beginning with his appointment by President Ronald Reagan in 1987. He discusses some of the cases he heard, including on Rajneeshpuram. He describes the various duties of federal judges; the processes and procedures of the Court of Appeals; and how it differs from the U.S. District Court of Oregon. He talks about his experience as a senior judge on the Court of Appeals since 1997, including mediating for U.S. v. Wen Ho Lee. He then talks about serving on the Surveillance Court of Review from 2001 to 2008, including the history and duties of that court. He also talks about writing opinions, his staff and law clerks, and the workload on the Court of Appeals. He closes the interview by discussing his thoughts on the trend of civil penalties in lieu of criminal, and concerns about the right to privacy.

Leavy, Edward, 1929-

Oral history interview with Jacob B. Tanzer [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Jacob B. Tanzer was conducted by Peter C. Richter from October 5, 2005, to April 4, 2006. In this interview, Tanzer discusses his family background and early life in Portland, Oregon. He briefly talks about his college experiences at the University of Oregon, Stanford University, and Reed College. He then talks about studying law at the University of Oregon, including his part-time jobs. He discusses practicing law in Portland and deciding to pursue a career as a public prosecutor instead. He talks about working for the U.S. Department of Justice in the organized crime division during the John F. Kennedy administration, particularly his work on the case of civil rights workers murdered in Mississippi in 1964. Tanzer discusses his reasons for leaving the U.S. Department of Justice that same year to return to Portland as a Multnomah County deputy district attorney. He talks about his fellow prosecutors, defense lawyers he argued against, and some of the judges he argued before. He discusses his appointment as Oregon’s first solicitor general in 1969 and describes some of the cases he prosecuted. He also talks about serving as director of the Oregon Department of Human Services from its inception in 1971 until 1973. He describes the types of social welfare programs he administered, discusses fighting budget cuts, and talks about working with Governor Tom McCall. He also speaks at length about volunteering with the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law in Mississippi for one month in 1967 and describes many of the cases he worked on. Tanzer discusses serving on the Oregon Court of Appeals from 1973 to 1980, and on the Oregon Supreme Court from 1980 to 1982. He talks about some of the judges he served with, particularly Hans Linde, and some of the opinions he wrote. He closes the interview by discussing the relationship between the legislative and judicial branches of state government; changes in the judiciary; and his advice for aspiring lawyers.

Tanzer, Jacob B., 1935-2018

Oral history interview with Kristine Olson [Transcript]

Transcript. This oral history interview with Kristine Olson was conducted by Kenneth R. Perry from October 24 to December 7, 2005. In this interview, Olson discusses her family background and early life in Queens, New York, including her early education, her childhood pets, and her experience moving to a more affluent neighborhood at age 13. She also talks about her experience growing up in a neighborhood that was equal parts Jewish and Catholic. She discusses her early involvement in Democratic politics, particularly her activities during the civil rights movement. Olson talks about her experience at Wellesley College in Boston, Massachusetts, including her involvement in several student political organizations, such as the Students for a Democratic Society, Wellesley Against Racism, and ETHOS, as well as her social life and acquaintanceship with Hillary Rodham Clinton. She also briefly talks about attending Yale Law School. Olson then discusses living in the Cosey Beach Commune in the 1970s, meeting Jeff Rogers and their subsequent marriage, and beginning her law career as a clerk for U.S. District Court Judge Robert Zampano. She describes moving to Oregon in 1973 and clerking for U.S. District Court Judge James Burns.

Olson discusses working as an assistant U.S. attorney with Sid Lezak from 1974 to 1984. She talks about taking time off to have children and the flexibility the U.S. attorney’s office afforded her. She describes her poor relationship with Lezak’s successor, Charlie Turner, and how his reaction to her handling of the prosecution of Black Panther Kent Ford resulted in her departure from the U.S. attorney’s office. She then describes her appointment as U.S. Attorney for the District of Oregon in 1994, including opposition from Charlie Turner, her interview with Attorney General Janet Reno, and her confirmation hearing. She describes the differences between how she and Turner ran the U.S. attorney’s office, particularly Turner’s emphasis on drug and pornography laws as opposed to her emphasis on civil rights and environmental laws. She talks about her admiration for Sid Lezak and Janet Reno, her brief experience working with Attorney General John Ashcroft, and her reasons for leaving office in 2001. She discusses working as legal counsel for Oregon Congressman Earl Blumenauer from 2001 to 2003.

Olson talks about her retirement activities, including her involvement with numerous civic organizations. She also talks about her friendship with Grand Ronde Tribal Council member Kathryn Harrison and about writing Harrison’s biography, “Standing Tall.” She also discusses her second marriage to Les Swanson. Olson closes the interview by describing some of her most influential professors, including Tom Emerson at Yale and Ingrid Staller at Wellesley.

Olson, Kristine

Oral history interview with Frank A. Bauman [Transcript]

Transcript. This interview with Frank Anthony Bauman was conducted by Karen E. Saul at Bauman’s office at the Carriage House and in the Standard Plaza Building in Portland, Oregon, from November 5, 2005, to May 15, 2007. In the interview, while looking at family photographs, Bauman discusses his early life and childhood in Northeast Portland, including attending Grant High School and delivering newspapers. He then discusses attending Stanford University, including studying economics and his recollections of the lead-up to World War II and the attack on Pearl Harbor. Bauman also talks about his experiences in the Navy during World War II, including learning Japanese; deployment to the South Pacific, particularly Peleliu; treatment and interrogation of Japanese prisoners of war; and visiting Hiroshima after the war. He goes on to describe studying at Yale Law School and establishing himself as a lawyer in Portland. He also discusses his wife, Mildred Bauman, and her involvement in the Great Books Program; studying international law at the University of London; and working at various law firms in Portland, including Veatch, Bauman & Lovett, and Keane, Haessler, Bauman & Harper. He goes on to talk about cases he argued before the Oregon Supreme Court and District Court, including Zucker v. Mitchell and Ritchie v. Lamb. Bauman also discusses volunteering as a civil rights lawyer in Mississippi; his involvement with the World Affairs Council; and his involvement with the United Nations, particularly focusing on UNICEF, General Paul Cullen, and his service as U.N. senior officer to Australasia.

Bauman, Frank A. (Frank Anthony), 1921-

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